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Fatemi S.H.,University of Minnesota | Folsom T.D.,University of Minnesota | Rooney R.J.,Genome Explorations Inc | Mori S.,Johns Hopkins University | And 7 more authors.
Neuropharmacology | Year: 2012

Researchers have long noted an excess of patients with schizophrenia were born during the months of January and March. This winter birth effect has been hypothesized to result either from various causes such as vitamin D deficiency (McGrath, 1999; McGrath et al.; 2010), or from maternal infection during pregnancy. Infection with a number of viruses during pregnancy including influenza, and rubella are known to increase the risk of schizophrenia in the offspring (Brown, 2006). Animal models using influenza virus or Poly I:C, a viral mimic, have been able to replicate many of the brain morphological, genetic, and behavioral deficits of schizophrenia (Meyer et al.; 2006, 2008a, 2009; Bitanihirwe et al.; 2010; Meyer and Feldon, 2010; Short et al.; 2010). Using a murine model of prenatal viral infection, our laboratory has shown that viral infection on embryonic days 9, 16, and 18 leads to abnormal expression of brain genes and brain structural abnormalities in the exposed offspring (Fatemi et al.; 2005, 2008a,b, 2009a,b). The purpose of the current study was to examine gene expression and morphological changes in the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex as a result of viral infection on embryonic day 7 of pregnancy. Pregnant mice were either infected with influenza virus [A/WSN/33 strain (H1N1)] or sham-infected with vehicle solution. At E16, placentas were harvested and prepared for either microarray analysis or for light microscopy. We observed significant, upregulation of 77 genes and significant downregulation of 93 genes in placentas. In brains of exposed offspring following E7 infection, there were changes in gene expression in prefrontal cortex (6 upregulated and 24 downregulated at P0; 5 upregulated and 14 downregulated at P56) and hippocampus (4 upregulated and 6 downregulated at P0; 6 upregulated and 13 downregulated at P56). QRT-PCR verified the direction and magnitude of change for a number of genes associated with hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, and autism. Placentas from infected mice showed a number of morphological abnormalities including presence of thrombi and increased presence of immune cells. Additionally, we searched for presence of H1N1 viral-specific genes for M1/M2, NA, and NS1 in placentas of infected mice and brains of exposed offspring and found none. Our results demonstrate that prenatal viral infection disrupts structure and gene expression of the placenta, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex potentially explaining deleterious effects in the exposed offspring without evidence for presence of viral RNAs in the target tissues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Schizophrenia'. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Goldenberg D.M.,Garden State Cancer Center | Goldenberg D.M.,Immunomedics, Inc. | Rooney R.J.,Genome Explorations Inc | Loo M.,Immunomedics, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

After demonstrating, with karyotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, the retention of certain human chromosomes and genes following the spontaneous fusion of human tumor and hamster cells in-vivo, it was postulated that cell fusion causes the horizontal transmission of malignancy and donor genes. Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 3 different hybrid tumors first generated in the hamster cheek pouch after human tumor grafting, and then propagated in hamsters and in cell cultures for years: two Hodgkin lymphomas (GW-532, GW-584) and a glioblastoma multiforme (GB-749). Based on the criteria of MAS 5.0 detection P-values ≤0.065 and at least a 2-fold greater signal expression value than a hamster melanoma control, we identified 3,759 probe sets (ranging from 1,040 to 1,303 in each transplant) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the 3 hybrid tumors, which unambiguously mapped to 3,107 unique Entrez Gene IDs, representative of all human chromosomes; however, by karyology, one of the hybrid tumors (GB-749) had a total of 15 human chromosomes in its cells. Among the genes mapped, 39 probe sets, representing 33 unique Entrez Gene IDs, complied with the detection criteria in all hybrid tumor samples. Five of these 33 genes encode transcription factors that are known to regulate cell growth and differentiation; five encode cell adhesion- and transmigration-associated proteins that participate in oncogenesis and/or metastasis and invasion; and additional genes encode proteins involved in signaling pathways, regulation of apoptosis, DNA repair, and multidrug resistance. These findings were corroborated by PCR and reverse transcription PCR, showing the presence of human alphoid (α)-satellite DNA and the F11R transcripts in additional tumor transplant generations. We posit that in-vivo fusion discloses genes implicated in tumor progression, and gene families coding for the organoid phenotype. Thus, cancer cells can transduce adjacent stromal cells, with the resulting progeny having permanently transcribed genes with malignant and other gene functions of the donor DNA. Using heterospecific in-vivo cell fusion, genes encoding oncogenic and organogenic traits may be identified. © 2014 Goldenberg et al.


PubMed | Genome Explorations Inc and Immunomedics, Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

After demonstrating, with karyotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization, the retention of certain human chromosomes and genes following the spontaneous fusion of human tumor and hamster cells in-vivo, it was postulated that cell fusion causes the horizontal transmission of malignancy and donor genes. Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles of 3 different hybrid tumors first generated in the hamster cheek pouch after human tumor grafting, and then propagated in hamsters and in cell cultures for years: two Hodgkin lymphomas (GW-532, GW-584) and a glioblastoma multiforme (GB-749). Based on the criteria of MAS 5.0 detection P-values 0.065 and at least a 2-fold greater signal expression value than a hamster melanoma control, we identified 3,759 probe sets (ranging from 1,040 to 1,303 in each transplant) from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of the 3 hybrid tumors, which unambiguously mapped to 3,107 unique Entrez Gene IDs, representative of all human chromosomes; however, by karyology, one of the hybrid tumors (GB-749) had a total of 15 human chromosomes in its cells. Among the genes mapped, 39 probe sets, representing 33 unique Entrez Gene IDs, complied with the detection criteria in all hybrid tumor samples. Five of these 33 genes encode transcription factors that are known to regulate cell growth and differentiation; five encode cell adhesion- and transmigration-associated proteins that participate in oncogenesis and/or metastasis and invasion; and additional genes encode proteins involved in signaling pathways, regulation of apoptosis, DNA repair, and multidrug resistance. These findings were corroborated by PCR and reverse transcription PCR, showing the presence of human alphoid ()-satellite DNA and the F11R transcripts in additional tumor transplant generations. We posit that in-vivo fusion discloses genes implicated in tumor progression, and gene families coding for the organoid phenotype. Thus, cancer cells can transduce adjacent stromal cells, with the resulting progeny having permanently transcribed genes with malignant and other gene functions of the donor DNA. Using heterospecific in-vivo cell fusion, genes encoding oncogenic and organogenic traits may be identified.


Singh R.P.,University of California at Los Angeles | Dinesh R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Elashoff D.,University of California at Los Angeles | De Vos S.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Genes and Immunity | Year: 2010

Tolerizing mice polygenically predisposed to lupus-like disease (NZB/NZW F1 females) with a peptide mimicking anti-DNA IgG sequences containing MHC class I and class II T cell determinants (pConsensus, pCons) results in protection from full-blown disease attributable in part to the induction of CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ and CD8+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. We compared 45 000 murine genes in total white blood cells (WBC), CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells from splenocytes of (NZBxNZW) F1 lupus-prone mice tolerized with pCons vs untreated nave mice and found two-fold or greater differential expression for 448 WBC, 174 CD4, and 60 CD8 genes. We identified differentially expressed genes that played roles in the immune response and apoptosis. Using real-time PCR, we validated differential expression of selected genes (IFI202B, Bcl2, Foxp3, Trp-53, CCR7 and IFNar1) in the CD8+ T cell microarray and determined expression of selected highly upregulated genes in different immune cell subsets. We also determined Smads expression in different immune cell subsets, including CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells, to detect the effects of TGF-Β, known to be the major cytokine that accounts for the suppressive capacity of CD8 + Treg in this system. Silencing of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 or interferon genes (IFI202b and IFNar1 in combination) in CD8 T cells from tolerized mice did not affect the expression of the other selected genes. However, silencing of Foxp3 reduced expression of Foxp3, Ifi202b and PD1all of which are involved in the suppressive capacity of CD8+ Treg in this model. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Pietersen C.Y.,McLean Hospital | Pietersen C.Y.,Harvard University | Mauney S.A.,McLean Hospital | Kim S.S.,McLean Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Neurogenetics | Year: 2014

Disrupted synchronized oscillatory firing of pyramidal neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex in the gamma frequency band (i.e., 30-100 Hz) mediates many of the cognitive deficits and symptoms of schizophrenia. In fact, the density of dendritic spines and the average somal area of pyramidal neurons in layer 3 of the cerebral cortex, which mediate both long-range (associational) and local (intrinsic) corticocortical connections, are decreased in subjects with this illness. To explore the molecular pathophysiology of pyramidal neuronal dysfunction, we extracted ribonucleic acid (RNA) from laser-captured pyramidal neurons from layer 3 of Brodmann's area 42 of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) from postmortem brains from schizophrenia and normal control subjects. We then profiled the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these neurons, using microarray technology. We identified 1331 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in schizophrenia, including genes that belong to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) signaling pathways. Disturbances of these signaling mechanisms may in part contribute to the altered expression of other genes found to be differentially expressed in this study, such as those that regulate extracellular matrix (ECM), apoptosis, and cytoskeletal and synaptic plasticity. In addition, we identified 10 microRNAs (miRNAs) that were differentially expressed in schizophrenia; enrichment analysis of their predicted gene targets revealed signaling pathways and gene networks that were found by microarray to be dysregulated, raising an interesting possibility that dysfunction of pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia may in part be mediated by a concerted dysregulation of gene network functions as a result of the altered expression of a relatively small number of miRNAs. Taken together, findings of this study provide a neurobiological framework within which specific hypotheses about the molecular mechanisms of pyramidal cell dysfunction in schizophrenia can be formulated. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Fatemi S.H.,University of Minnesota | Folsom T.D.,University of Minnesota | Rooney R.J.,Genome Explorations Inc
Translational Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that targets ∼5% of all mRNAs expressed in the brain. Previous work by our laboratory demonstrated significantly lower protein levels for FMRP in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression when compared with controls. Absence of FMRP expression in animal models of fragile X syndrome (FXS) has been shown to reduce expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA A) receptor mRNAs. Previous work by our laboratory has found reduced expression of FMRP, as well as multiple GABA A and GABA B receptor subunits in subjects with autism. Less is known about levels for GABA A subunit protein expression in brains of subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorders. In the current study, we have expanded our previous studies to examine the protein and mRNA expression of two novel GABA A receptors, theta (GABRθ) and rho 2 (GABRρ2) as well as FMRP, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and healthy controls, and in superior frontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9 (BA9)) of subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy controls. We observed multiple statistically significant mRNA and protein changes in levels of GABRθ, GABRρ2, mGluR5 and FMRP molecules including concordant reductions in mRNA and proteins for GABRθ and mGluR5 in lateral cerebella of subjects with schizophrenia; for increased mRNA and protein for GABRρ2 in lateral cerebella of subjects with bipolar disorder; and for reduced mRNA and protein for mGluR5 in BA9 of subjects with bipolar disorder. There were no significant effects of confounds on any of the results. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Kim W.,Harvard University | Kim W.,Hanyang University | Lee Y.,Harvard University | McKenna N.D.,Harvard University | And 8 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2014

Dopamine (DA) neurons in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) display dysregulated gene expression networks and signaling pathways that are implicated in PD pathogenesis. Micro (mi)RNAs are regulators of gene expression, which could be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. We determined the miRNA profiles in laser microdissected DA neurons from postmortem sporadic PD patients' brains and age-matched controls. DA neurons had a distinctive miRNA signature and a set of miRNAs was dysregulated in PD. Bioinformatics analysis provided evidence for correlations of miRNAs with signaling pathways relevant to PD, including an association of miR-126 with insulin/IGF-1/PI3K signaling. In DA neuronal cell systems, enhanced expression of miR-126 impaired IGF-1 signaling and increased vulnerability to the neurotoxin 6-OHDA by downregulating factors in IGF-1/PI3K signaling, including its targets p85β, IRS-1, and SPRED1. Blocking of miR-126 function increased IGF-1 trophism and neuroprotection to 6-OHDA. Our data imply that elevated levels of miR-126 may play a functional role in DA neurons and in PD pathogenesis by downregulating IGF-1/PI3K/AKT signaling and that its inhibition could be a mechanism of neuroprotection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Genome Explorations Inc, NCI Inc, Hanyang University, Harvard University and Life Technologies
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurobiology of aging | Year: 2014

Dopamine (DA) neurons in sporadic Parkinsons disease (PD) display dysregulated gene expression networks and signaling pathways that are implicated in PD pathogenesis. Micro (mi)RNAs are regulators of gene expression, which could be involved in neurodegenerative diseases. We determined the miRNA profiles in laser microdissected DA neurons from postmortem sporadic PD patients brains and age-matched controls. DA neurons had a distinctive miRNA signature and a set of miRNAs was dysregulated in PD. Bioinformatics analysis provided evidence for correlations of miRNAs with signaling pathways relevant to PD, including an association of miR-126 with insulin/IGF-1/PI3K signaling. In DA neuronal cell systems, enhanced expression of miR-126 impaired IGF-1 signaling and increased vulnerability to the neurotoxin 6-OHDA by downregulating factors in IGF-1/PI3K signaling, including its targets p85, IRS-1, and SPRED1. Blocking of miR-126 function increased IGF-1 trophism and neuroprotection to 6-OHDA. Our data imply that elevated levels of miR-126 may play a functional role in DA neurons and in PD pathogenesis by downregulating IGF-1/PI3K/AKT signaling and that its inhibition could be a mechanism of neuroprotection.


PubMed | Genome Explorations Inc and Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neuromolecular medicine | Year: 2016

Caregiving for a dementia patient is associated with increased risk of psychological and physical health problems. We investigated whether a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training course for caregivers that closely models the MBSR curriculum originally established by the Center of Mindfulness at the University of Massachusetts may improve the psychological resilience of non-professional caregivers of Alzheimers disease patients. Twenty adult non-professional caregivers of dementia patients participated in an 8-week MBSR training course. Caregiver stress, depression, burden, grief, and gene expression profiles of blood mononuclear cells were assessed at baseline and following MBSR. MBSR training significantly improved the psychological resilience of some of the caregivers. We identified predictive biomarkers whose expression is associated with the likelihood of caregivers to benefit from MBSR, and biomarkers whose expression is associated with MBSR psychological benefits. Our biomarker studies provide insight into the mechanisms of health benefits of MBSR and a basis for developing a personalized medicine approach for applying MBSR for promoting psychological and cognitive resilience in caregivers of dementia patients.

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