Falmer, United Kingdom
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Rulten S.L.,Genome Damage and Stability Center | Caldecott K.W.,Genome Damage and Stability Center
DNA Repair | Year: 2013

A number of DNA repair disorders are known to cause neurological problems. These disorders can be broadly characterised into early developmental, mid-to-late developmental or progressive. The exact developmental processes that are affected can influence disease pathology, with symptoms ranging from early embryonic lethality to late-onset ataxia. The category these diseases belong to depends on the frequency of lesions arising in the brain, the role of the defective repair pathway, and the nature of the mutation within the patient. Using observations from patients and transgenic mice, we discuss the importance of double strand break repair during neuroprogenitor proliferation and brain development and the repair of single stranded lesions in neuronal function and maintenance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Grundy G.J.,Genome Damage and Stability Center | Moulding H.A.,University of Bristol | Caldecott K.W.,Genome Damage and Stability Center | Rulten S.L.,Genome Damage and Stability Center
DNA Repair | Year: 2014

The repair of DNA double strand breaks is essential for cell survival and several conserved pathways have evolved to ensure their rapid and efficient repair. The non-homologous end joining pathway is initiated when Ku binds to the DNA break site. Ku is an abundant nuclear heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80 with a toroidal structure that allows the protein to slide over the broken DNA end and bind with high affinity. Once locked into placed, Ku acts as a tool-belt to recruit multiple interacting proteins, forming one or more non-homologous end joining complexes that act in a regulated manner to ensure efficient repair of DNA ends. Here we review the structure and functions of Ku and the proteins with which it interacts during non-homologous end joining. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Prodromou C.,Genome Damage and Stability Center
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research | Year: 2012

Hsp90 forms a variety of complexes differing both in clientele and co-chaperones. Central to the role of co-chaperones in the formation of Hsp90 complexes is the delivery of client proteins and the regulation of the ATPase activity of Hsp90. Determining the mechanisms by which co-chaperones regulate Hsp90 is essential in understanding the assembly of these complexes and the activation and maturation of Hsp90's clientele. Mechanistically, co-chaperones alter the kinetics of the ATP-coupled conformational changes of Hsp90. The structural changes leading to the formation of a catalytically active unit involve all regions of the Hsp90 dimer. Their complexity has allowed different orthologues of Hsp90 to evolve kinetically in slightly different ways. The interaction of the cytosolic Hsp90 with a variety of co-chaperones lends itself to a complex set of different regulatory mechanisms that modulate Hsp90's conformation and ATPase activity. It also appears that the conformational switches of Hsp90 are not necessarily coupled under all circumstances. Here, I described different co-chaperone complexes and then discuss in detail the mechanisms and role that specific co-chaperones play in this. I will also discuss emerging evidence that post-translational modifications also affect the ATPase activity of Hsp90, and thus complex formation. Finally, I will present evidence showing how Hsp90's active site, although being highly conserved, can be altered to show resistance to drug binding, but still maintain ATP binding and ATPase activity. Such changes are therefore unlikely to significantly alter Hsp90's interactions with client proteins and co-chaperones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90). © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Genome Damage and Stability Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta | Year: 2012

Hsp90 forms a variety of complexes differing both in clientele and co-chaperones. Central to the role of co-chaperones in the formation of Hsp90 complexes is the delivery of client proteins and the regulation of the ATPase activity of Hsp90. Determining the mechanisms by which co-chaperones regulate Hsp90 is essential in understanding the assembly of these complexes and the activation and maturation of Hsp90s clientele. Mechanistically, co-chaperones alter the kinetics of the ATP-coupled conformational changes of Hsp90. The structural changes leading to the formation of a catalytically active unit involve all regions of the Hsp90 dimer. Their complexity has allowed different orthologues of Hsp90 to evolve kinetically in slightly different ways. The interaction of the cytosolic Hsp90 with a variety of co-chaperones lends itself to a complex set of different regulatory mechanisms that modulate Hsp90s conformation and ATPase activity. It also appears that the conformational switches of Hsp90 are not necessarily coupled under all circumstances. Here, I described different co-chaperone complexes and then discuss in detail the mechanisms and role that specific co-chaperones play in this. I will also discuss emerging evidence that post-translational modifications also affect the ATPase activity of Hsp90, and thus complex formation. Finally, I will present evidence showing how Hsp90s active site, although being highly conserved, can be altered to show resistance to drug binding, but still maintain ATP binding and ATPase activity. Such changes are therefore unlikely to significantly alter Hsp90s interactions with client proteins and co-chaperones. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90).


PubMed | Genome Damage and Stability Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Biochemical journal | Year: 2016

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the activation of disparate client proteins. This implicates Hsp90 in diverse biological processes that require a variety of co-ordinated regulatory mechanisms to control its activity. Perhaps the most important regulator is heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), which is primarily responsible for upregulating Hsp90 by binding heat shock elements (HSEs) within Hsp90 promoters. HSF1 is itself subject to a variety of regulatory processes and can directly respond to stress. HSF1 also interacts with a variety of transcriptional factors that help integrate biological signals, which in turn regulate Hsp90 appropriately. Because of the diverse clientele of Hsp90 a whole variety of co-chaperones also regulate its activity and some are directly responsible for delivery of client protein. Consequently, co-chaperones themselves, like Hsp90, are also subject to regulatory mechanisms such as post translational modification. This review, looks at the many different levels by which Hsp90 activity is ultimately regulated.

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