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News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.thefishsite.com

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has approved the use of mechanically-extracted camelina oil as a feed ingredient for farmed salmon and trout. Camelina sativa, or false flax, is a hardy oilseed plant that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, protein and antioxidants. This super-nutritious plant is used as a vegetable oil for human consumption and as an ingredient or supplement in some animal feeds. Fish feed manufacturers have also explored the use of crop-based oilseeds like camelina as viable and cost-efficient substitutes for wild-sourced fish oils and proteins currently used in fish feeds. A recently completed large-scale study of camelina oil managed by Genome Atlantic with support from the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA)’s Atlantic Innovation Fund, found camelina to be an excellent match to the fatty acid composition required in the diets of farmed fish. Backed by this compelling evidence, Genome Atlantic applied to the CFIA for approval of camelina oil for use in fish feeds. “Genome Atlantic and its partners have transformed a tiny seed into a big opportunity, creating an innovative, alternative solution with long-term benefits to industry,” said the Honourable Navdeep Bains, Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development and Minister responsible for ACOA. Aquaculture scientist Dr Chris Parrish of Memorial University, one of the study’s principal researchers, says that camelina oil has characteristics that make it a particularly promising alternative in fish diets. “Among the oils that can be used to replace fish oil in aquafeeds, camelina is one of the few with high levels of omega-3 fatty acids. While these omega-3 fatty acids are different to those present in fish oils, they enhance the ability of fish to synthesize the healthful long-chain omega-3 fatty acids that are needed for their optimal growth. This, in turn, ensures a healthful fillet for human consumers,” said Dr Parrish. Another of the study’s principal researchers, Dr Claude Caldwell of Dalhousie University, explains that the scientists found camelina oil to be sufficiently nutritious to replace all the fish oil in feeds, as well as some of the ground fish meal. “The use of wild-sourced fish to feed the farmed fish is not sustainable either ecologically or economically. Camelina could be a viable alternative,” he said. Considering that aquaculture companies spend 50 to 70 percent of their budgets on feed, finding a high-quality, lower cost source of oil could mean significant savings. While the CFIA’s recent approval only covers camelina oil, Dr Caldwell and his Dalhousie team are currently conducting feeding trials for the CFIA on camelina meal. “Camelina meal can’t entirely replace fish meal used in fish feeds, but it could replace some of that meal,” he said. Scientists at Rothamsted Research in the UK, who have succeeded in producing a genetically modified (GM) strain of camelina that contains high levels of the long chain omega-3s EPA and DHA believe it could – in the long run – help to pave the way for the use of GM camelina in fish feeds. As Professor Johnathan Napier, who leads the GM camelina research, told The Fish Site: “From our perspective, I believe that it is a positive step forward that conventional, unmodified camelina oil is approved for use as a salmon feed ingredient, though of course that particular oil will lack the critical long chain omega-3s EPA and DHA which we have engineered into our GM camelina. Anything that increases the visibility of camelina in general, either to farmers or to the aquafeed industry, is a positive step forward. It is interesting to note that the same academic consortium is interested in getting approval for inclusion of camelina seed meal in salmon diets, and this would also be something we would be pleased to see.” Camelina is grown in many parts of the world, including North America. Dr Caldwell suggests camelina could be a good rotation crop for potatoes, making it a potentially viable option for farmers in Maritime Canada. “There are about 200,000 acres of potatoes planted in this region. Camelina could be a successful rotation crop that could open new markets for farmers while making the aquaculture industry healthier and more sustainable,” said Dr Caldwell. The Camelina Project also received support from The Research and Development Corporation of Newfoundland and Labrador (RDC), the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the University of Saskatchewan, Memorial University, Dalhousie University, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Minas Seeds, Cooke Aquaculture, and Genome Prairie.


CALGARY, AB --(Marketwired - December 08, 2016) - A collaborative research project involving four universities in Alberta and Atlantic Canada has received major funding to address the issue of pipeline corrosion caused by microbial activity. The federal government announcement was made today by Minister of Science, Kirsty Duncan in Montreal. The $7.8 m comes through the Genome Canada 2015 Large-Scale Applied Research Project Competition (LSARP). It will support Managing Microbial Corrosion in Canadian Offshore and Onshore Oil Production, a four-year research project set to begin in January with an aim to improve pipeline integrity. "This work will definitely help to pinpoint how microbial activity causes corrosion in carbon steel infrastructure and help in its early detection so we can minimize leaks," says Lisa Gieg, an associate professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Calgary. "It's not just about pipelines, this research will look at all points of contact between oil and steel in extraction, production and processing. This work can help make the industry safer." Gieg is one of three project leaders who include John Wolodko, an associate professor and Alberta Innovates Strategic Chair in Bio and Industrial Materials at the University of Alberta; and Faisal Khan, a professor and the Vale Research Chair of Process Safety and Risk Engineering at Memorial University in St. John's, NL. Also working on the project is Rob Beiko, an associate professor in computer science and Canada Research Chair in Bioinformatics at Dalhousie University in Halifax, N.S., and Dr. Tesfaalem Haile who is a senior corrosion specialist at InnoTech Alberta in Devon, AB. Beiko will be building a database to analyse the microbiology and chemistry lab results, while Haile's team will be working with the University of Alberta to simulate microbial corrosion in the lab and at the pilot-scale. "To some degree, [microbial degradation of pipelines] is akin to a cancer diagnosis and treatment in the medical field," says Wolodko. "While there is significant knowledge and best practices in diagnosing and treating cancer, it is still not completely understood, and significant research is still required to further eliminate its impact to society. "While this problem is complex, this pan-Canadian project brings together research groups from across Canada in different science disciplines to tackle this problem collectively. By bringing this multidisciplinary focus to this problem, it is hoped that this research will lead to a better understanding of the breadth of microbes responsible for microbial corrosion, and will help academia and industry develop improved solutions to rapidly identify and mitigate this form of corrosion globally." While researchers at Memorial University are involved in all stages of the project, Faisal Khan, Head, Department of Process Engineering, and Director, C-RISE, Memorial University, says the focus for Memorial is on how microbes cause corrosion. Khan leads Memorial's multidisciplinary team, which also includes Kelly Hawboldt, Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science; and Christina Bottaro, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science. "We know that microbes cause corrosion, but we are examining how they cause corrosion," said Khan. "We are identifying the chemical source and how it reacts to the surface of the metal to cause corrosion. The risk models that we're developing will link the corrosion process to the outcome. This will be very important for industry when evaluating their level of corrosion intervention and control, and where to focus their resources on corrosion mitigation." Corrosion of steel infrastructure is estimated to cost the oil and gas industry in the range of $3 billion to $7 billion each year in maintenance, repairs and replacement. Microbiologically influenced corrosion is responsible for at least 20 per cent of that cost. The research team will take samples from a wide range of environments including offshore platforms and both upstream pipelines and transmission pipelines, which are all associated with different fluid chemistries and physical characteristics. By using the latest in genomics techniques, the interdisciplinary team will be able to look for trends related to specific microbes and chemistries that lead to microbial corrosion. Ultimately, the project will lead to better predictions of whether microbial corrosion will occur in a given oil and gas operation. All three project leads say the key to success in this project is collaboration. Bringing the experience, skills and expertise from across a range of disciplines and from multiple universities provides the best opportunity to succeed in finding solutions to ensure the safety of pipelines and other oil and gas infrastructure. "Genome Alberta and Genome Atlantic are pleased to be supporting a major study that will develop technologies to proactively detect and pinpoint microbial corrosion in both offshore and onshore oil production," notes David Bailey, President and CEO, Genome Alberta. "These researchers will apply their combined expertise to help address the protection of our natural environment, as well as our growing energy needs," says John Reynolds, acting vice-president (research) at the University of Calgary. "We look forward to working with our research partners and funders who have joined together to support this important work through this Genome Canada award." This grant was one of 13 projects that received funding in an announcement made by the federal government Thursday. Combined with co-funding from the provinces, international organizations and the private sector, the total announcement is worth $110 million. This includes a second project involving a University of Calgary lead to research methods of bioremediation of potential oil spills in the arctic. All the funded projects involve emerging knowledge about genomics (e.g., the genetic makeup of living organisms) to help address challenges in the natural resource and environmental sectors. The project will be managed by Genome Alberta in conjunction with Genome Atlantic, and with an international collaboration of partners that are working together to ensure safer and more secure hydrocarbon energy production: Genome Canada, Alberta Economic Development & Trade, Research & Development Corporation of Newfoundland & Labrador, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Natural Resources Canada, InnoTech Alberta, VIA University College, DNV-GL Canada, U of C Industrial Research Chair, and in-kind support from a variety of industry partners. About the University of Calgary The University of Calgary is making tremendous progress on its journey to become one of Canada's top five research universities, where research and innovative teaching go hand in hand, and where we fully engage the communities we both serve and lead. This strategy is called Eyes High, inspired by the university's Gaelic motto, which translates as 'I will lift up my eyes.' For more information, visit ucalgary.ca. Stay up to date with University of Calgary news headlines on Twitter @UCalgary. For details on faculties and how to reach experts go to our media centre at ucalgary.ca/news/media. About the University of Alberta The University of Alberta in Edmonton is one of Canada's top teaching and research universities, with an international reputation for excellence across the humanities, sciences, creative arts, business, engineering, and health sciences. Home to 39,000 students and 15,000 faculty and staff, the university has an annual budget of $1.84 billion and attracts nearly $450 million in sponsored research revenue. The U of A offers close to 400 rigorous undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs in 18 faculties on five campuses-including one rural and one francophone campus. The university has more than 275,000 alumni worldwide. The university and its people remain dedicated to the promise made in 1908 by founding president Henry Marshall Tory that knowledge shall be used for "uplifting the whole people." About Memorial University Memorial University is one of the largest universities in Atlantic Canada. As the province's only university, Memorial plays an integral role in the education and cultural life of Newfoundland and Labrador. Offering diverse undergraduate and graduate programs to almost 18,000 students, Memorial provides a distinctive and stimulating environment for learning in St. John's, a safe friendly city with great historic charm, a vibrant cultural life and easy access to a wide range of outdoor activities. About Genome Alberta Genome Alberta is a publicly funded not-for-profit genomics research funding organization based in Calgary, Alberta but leads projects at institutions around the province and participates in a variety of other projects across the country. In partnership with Genome Canada, Industry Canada, and the Province of Alberta, Genome Alberta was established in 2005 to focus on genomics as one of the central components of the Life Sciences Initiative in Alberta, and to help position genomics as a core research effort. For more information on the range of projects led and managed by Genome Alberta, visit http://GenomeAlberta.ca


Booman M.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Borza T.,Genome Atlantic | Feng C.Y.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Hori T.S.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | And 13 more authors.
Marine Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The collapse of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) wild populations strongly impacted the Atlantic cod fishery and led to the development of cod aquaculture. In order to improve aquaculture and broodstock quality, we need to gain knowledge of genes and pathways involved in Atlantic cod responses to pathogens and other stressors. The Atlantic Cod Genomics and Broodstock Development Project has generated over 150,000 expressed sequence tags from 42 cDNA libraries representing various tissues, developmental stages, and stimuli. We used this resource to develop an Atlantic cod oligonucleotide microarray containing 20,000 unique probes. Selection of sequences from the full range of cDNA libraries enables application of the microarray for a broad spectrum of Atlantic cod functional genomics studies. We included sequences that were highly abundant in suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries, which were enriched for transcripts responsive to pathogens or other stressors. These sequences represent genes that potentially play an important role in stress and/or immune responses, making the microarray particularly useful for studies of Atlantic cod gene expression responses to immune stimuli and other stressors. To demonstrate its value, we used the microarray to analyze the Atlantic cod spleen response to stimulation with formalin-killed, atypical Aeromonas salmonicida, resulting in a gene expression profile that indicates a strong innate immune response. These results were further validated by quantitative PCR analysis and comparison to results from previous analysis of an SSH library. This study shows that the Atlantic cod 20K oligonucleotide microarray is a valuable new tool for Atlantic cod functional genomics research. © 2010 The Author(s).


Murray H.M.,Institute for Marine Biosciences | Murray H.M.,Scotian Halibut Ltd. | Lall S.P.,Institute for Marine Biosciences | Rajaselvam R.,Genome Atlantic | And 8 more authors.
Marine Biotechnology | Year: 2010

An experimental microdiet prepared using an internal gelation method was used to partially replace the traditional live feed (Artemia) for larval Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. Three trials were conducted with microdiet introduced at 20, 32, and 43 days post first feeding and larvae were sampled at approximately 2, 13, 23, and 33 days after microdiet introduction in each trial. The success of feeding was assessed by morphometrics and histological analysis of gut contents. Microdiet particles were readily consumed after a period of adaptation and provided an adequate source of nutrients with no significant increase in mortality in the microdiet-fed group compared to the control group. However, growth was limited and there was an increased incidence of malpigmentation of the eye and skin. Subtle changes in underlying digestive and developmental physiology were revealed by microarray analysis of RNA from control and experimental fish given microdiet from day 20 post first feeding. Fifty-eight genes were differentially expressed over the four sampling times in the course of the trial and the 28 genes with annotated functions fell into five major categories: metabolism and biosynthesis, cell division and proliferation, protein trafficking, cell structure, and stress. Interestingly, several of these genes were involved in pigmentation and eye development, in agreement with the phenotypic abnormalities seen in the larvae. © 2009 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the National Research Council of Canada.


Murray H.M.,National Research Council Canada | Lall S.P.,National Research Council Canada | Rajaselvam R.,Genome Atlantic | Boutilier L.A.,Genome Atlantic | And 6 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

Aquaculture feeds for carnivorous finfish species have been dependent upon the use of fish meal as the major source of dietary protein; however, the increasing demands upon the finite quantity of this high-quality protein source requires that feeds become increasingly comprised of alternative plant and/or animal protein. Soybean meal has been has been used to partially replace fish meal in the diets of several fish but it is known to cause enteritis in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. We have compared two groups of juvenile (207.2 ± 6.6 g) Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, L., fed diets containing fish meal (FM; control) or 30% soybean meal (SBM; experimental) as a protein source for 3 weeks. No detectable difference in feed intake or palatability was evident with the SBM diet relative to the FM diet. Histological examination of the distal intestine was performed to examine leukocyte infiltration of the lamina propria and other changes in morphology commonly observed with soybean-induced enteritis of salmonids. No significant difference was found between fish fed the FM and SBM diets. Global gene expression profiling performed using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray containing 9260 unique features, printed in quadruplicate, from Atlantic halibut revealed subtle underlying changes in the expression of several immune genes and genes involved in muscle formation, lipid transport, xenobiotic detoxification, digestion and intermediary metabolism. These results indicate that SBM can be used successfully as a replacement for animal protein in diet for juvenile Atlantic halibut, although long-term effects on the immune system may ensue. Crown Copyright © 2009.


Xue X.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Feng C.Y.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Hixson S.M.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Johnstone K.,Genome Atlantic | And 3 more authors.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2014

For aquaculture to become sustainable, there is a need to substitute fish oil [FO, rich in ω3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA)] in aquafeed with plant oils such as camelina oil [CO, rich in C18 PUFA such as 18:3ω3 (ALA) and 18:2ω6 (LNA)]. The LC-PUFA are essential components in fish diets for maintaining optimal health, physiology and growth. However, most marine fish including Atlantic cod are inefficient at producing LC-PUFA from shorter chain precursors. Since elovl genes encode enzymes that play key roles in fatty acid biosynthesis, we hypothesized that they may be involved in Atlantic cod responses to diets rich in 18:3ω3 and 18:2ω6. Ten members of the cod elovl gene family were characterized at the mRNA level. RT-PCR was used to study constitutive expression of elovl transcripts in fifteen tissues. Some transcripts (e.g. elovl5) were ubiquitously expressed, while others had tissue-specific expression (e.g. elovl4a in brain and eye). Cod fed a CO-containing diet (100% CO replacement of FO and including solvent-extracted fish meal) had significantly lower weight gain, with significant up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6 transcripts in the liver as shown by QPCR analysis, compared with cod on a FO control diet after a 13-week trial. Multivariate statistical analyses (SIMPER and PCA) indicated that high 18:3ω3 and/or low ω3 LC-PUFA levels in the liver were associated with the up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6, which are involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in cod. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Memorial University of Newfoundland, Dalhousie University and Genome Atlantic
Type: | Journal: Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology | Year: 2014

For aquaculture to become sustainable, there is a need to substitute fish oil [FO, rich in 3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) such as 20:53 (EPA) and 22:63 (DHA)] in aquafeed with plant oils such as camelina oil [CO, rich in C18 PUFA such as 18:33 (ALA) and 18:26 (LNA)]. The LC-PUFA are essential components in fish diets for maintaining optimal health, physiology and growth. However, most marine fish including Atlantic cod are inefficient at producing LC-PUFA from shorter chain precursors. Since elovl genes encode enzymes that play key roles in fatty acid biosynthesis, we hypothesized that they may be involved in Atlantic cod responses to diets rich in 18:33 and 18:26. Ten members of the cod elovl gene family were characterized at the mRNA level. RT-PCR was used to study constitutive expression of elovl transcripts in fifteen tissues. Some transcripts (e.g. elovl5) were ubiquitously expressed, while others had tissue-specific expression (e.g. elovl4a in brain and eye). Cod fed a CO-containing diet (100% CO replacement of FO and including solvent-extracted fish meal) had significantly lower weight gain, with significant up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6 transcripts in the liver as shown by QPCR analysis, compared with cod on a FO control diet after a 13-week trial. Multivariate statistical analyses (SIMPER and PCA) indicated that high 18:33 and/or low 3 LC-PUFA levels in the liver were associated with the up-regulation of elovl5 and fadsd6, which are involved in LC-PUFA biosynthesis in cod.

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