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Santino I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Alari A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bono S.,GENOMA Molecular Genetics Laboratory | Bernardini A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The yeast Saccharomyces boulardii is a biotherapeutic agent used for the prevention and treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases, such as diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile, in addition to the antibiotic therapy. In this study we report a case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungemia in a patient with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) treated orally with S. boulardii in association with vancomycin. The identification of the S. cerevisiae was confirmed by molecular technique. Fungemia is a rare, but a serious complication to treatment with probiotics. We believe it is important to remind the clinicians of this risk when prescribing probiotics, especially to immunocompromised patients. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s. Source

Santino I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bono S.,GENOMA Molecular Genetics Laboratory | Borruso L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bove M.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 3 more authors.
Mycoses | Year: 2013

Kodamaea ohmeri is an unusual yeast-form fungus that has recently been identified as an important aetiological agent of fungaemia, endocarditis, cellulitis, funguria and peritonitis in immunocompromised patients. We present two new isolated of K. ohmeri. The microorganisms were identified by CHROMagar Candida medium, VitekII system and API ID32C. Biochemical identification of the two yeast isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the 26S ribosomal DNA. Antifungal susceptibility testing done by Sensititre YeastOne showed that the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, voriconazole and itraconazole. This work is the first report of isolation of K. ohmeri in immunocompromised patients in Italy. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Fiorentino F.,GENOMA Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2012

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) has experienced a considerable technical evolution since its first application in the early 1990s. The technology for single-cell genetic analysis has reached an extremely high level of accuracy and enabled the possibility of performing multiple diagnoses from one cell. Diagnosis of a monogenic disease can now be combined with aneuploidy screening, human leukocyte antigen typing, and DNA fingerprinting. New technologies such as microarrays are opening the way for an increasing number of serious genetic defects to be detected in preimplantation embryos. The new PGD techniques will empower patients and clinicians to screen for almost any kind of genetic problem in embryos, with the potential to change completely the manner in which parents approach and manage genetic disease. Copyright © 2012 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. Source

Fiorentino F.,GENOMA Molecular Genetics Laboratory
Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2012

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Embryo assessment is a crucial component to the success of IVF. A high rate of embryos produced in vitro present chromosomal abnormalities and have reduced potential for achieving a viable pregnancy. The use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis by array comparative genomic hybridization, for comprehensive aneuploidy screening of embryos, to improve IVF outcomes, is reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from comprehensive aneuploidy screening of embryos showed that aneuploidies may occur in any of the 24 chromosomes, indicating that aneuploidy screening of all chromosomes is necessary to determine whether an embryo is chromosomally normal. Initial studies on clinical application of this technology have documented improved pregnancy outcomes following transfer of screened embryos. The optimal stage of preimplantation development at which preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) should be performed still remains to be determined. SUMMARY: Although clinical results have been promising, further evidence is required to establish whether PGS results in enhanced live birth rate, and if this is the case, to identify which patients may benefit from the procedure. The results from several ongoing randomized controlled trials, performed at different cell biopsy stage and categories of patients, will provide the data needed to accept or reject the clinical efficacy of PGS. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Santino I.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Bono S.,GENOMA Molecular Genetics Laboratory | Nuccitelli A.,GENOMA Molecular Genetics Laboratory | Martinelli D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Fifteen Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates showing non-susceptibility to carbapenems and resistant to colistin were collected in an Italian hospital. All isolates resulted negative to AmpC, MBL and ESBL production but positive to modified Hodge test, therefore were evaluated as KPC producers. The presence of blaKPC genes was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Furthermore, molecular typing was performed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). PCR analysis and nucleotide sequencing revealed that all 15 isolates carried the blaKPC-3 gene. MLST analysis attributed the isolates from all patients to belong to the sequence type ST512. All isolates showed extensively drug-resistant (XDR) phenotype. The emergence of colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae underscores the implementation of strict control measures to prevent the dissemination of these organisms in hospitals. Copyright © by BIOLIFE, s.a.s. Source

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