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São Paulo, Brazil

Colombo F.A.,Instituto Adolfo Lutz | Odorizzi R.M.F.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Laurenti M.D.,University of Sao Paulo | Galati E.A.B.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2011

The occurrence of the insect vector (sand flies) with low rates of Leishmania infection, as well as autochthonous transmission in the absence of the natural vector in dogs, have been reported. These unexpected data suggest a hypothesis of other arthropods as a possible way of Leishmania transmission. The prevalence of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in fleas and ticks collected from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), as well as parasite viability, were evaluated herein. The presence of L. (L.) infantum was assayed by PCR and ELISA in ectoparasites and biological samples from 73 dogs living in a Brazilian endemic area. As the occurrence of Leishmania DNA in ticks and fleas is expected given their blood-feeding habits, we next investigated whether parasites can remain viable inside ticks. PCR and ELISA confirmed that 83% of the dogs had CVL. Fleas and ticks (nymphs, male and female adults) were collected in 55% and 63% of the 73 dogs, respectively. Out of the 60 dogs with CVL, 80% harbored ectoparasites infected with L. (L.) infantum. The infection rates of the ectoparasites were 23% and 50% for fleas and ticks, respectively. The RNA analysis of the extract from ticks left in laboratory conditions during 7 to 10 days after removal from CVL dogs showed that parasites were alive. In addition, live parasites were also detected inside adult ticks recently molted in laboratory conditions. These findings indicate a higher infection rate of L. (L.) infantum in ticks and fleas, but they do not conclusively demonstrate whether these ticks can act as vectors of CVL, despite the fact that their rates were higher than those previously described in Lutzomyia longipalpis. The presence of viable L. (L.) infantum in ticks suggests the possible importance of dog ectoparasites in CVL dissemination. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Genoa Biotecnologia S.A. and University of Alberta | Date: 2011-03-25

A method of predicting the phenotype of cattle through the analysis of one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is described. More particularly, a method for predicting cattle temperament and behavior through the analysis of one or more single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped at specific regions of the bovine genome is described.

Motoie G.,Instituto Adolfo Lutz | Ferreira G.E.M.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Cupolillo E.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Canavez F.,Genoa Biotecnologia SA | Pereira-Chioccola V.L.,Instituto Adolfo Lutz
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2013

This study investigated the genetic characteristics of Leishmania infantum samples from São Paulo (SP) State, Brazil in order to collaborate with information about the possible origins of the parasites, as well as, the introduction and spread of visceral leishmaniasis in this Brazilian State. Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was performed using a set of 17 microsatellite markers. DNA was extracted from 250 samples collected from dogs diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis and 112 (45%) were genotyped: 67 from the northwest region (NWSP), and 29 from the southeast region (SESP) of SP. The results were correlated with other 16 samples from Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS) (which borders NWSP). Although, a small portion of samples was genotyped, it was possible to genotype multiple loci using small amounts of Leishmania DNA extracted directly from dog tissues. Despite the fact that MLMT analysis defined 33 different genotypes, a low polymorphism was detected within the parasites studied with 10 polymorphic loci. There are two main genetic clusters circulating in SP with strong genetic differentiation, one (POP-A) is composed by samples from SESP and NWSP and presented a weak signal of geographical substructure. The other, belongs to the same cluster found in the state of MS (POP-B), which was the main one. The majority (93.75%) of MS parasite genotypes belonged to POP-B, with just one sample (6.25%) grouped in POP-A. POP-B also comprised 10.34% of SESP and 26.87% of NWSP samples. Besides one sample from MS, POP-A is composed by 73.13% of NWSP and 89.66% of SESP samples. The MLMT analysis supported the idea of canine visceral leishmaniasis being introduced in the Northwest region of SP State by the traffic of humans and dogs from MS. In the southeast region of SP occurred an introduction of a new L. infantum genetic cluster. Probably the transmission was spread by traffic of infected dogs from other Brazilian regions, or by introduction of imported dogs from other countries. All these data together contributed to the detection of the genetic profile of L. infantum population in SP State. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Leite K.R.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Leite K.R.M.,Genoa Biotecnologia SA | Reis S.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Junior J.P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2015

Background: PD-L1 is a glycoprotein from the family of T-cell co-stimulatory molecules that are constitutively expressed by macrophages. Aberrant expression of PD-L1 is observed in human cancers associated with inhibition of the tumor-directed T-cell immune response. There are few reports in the literature evaluating PD-L1 expression in association to prognosis specifically in renal cell cancer clear cell type (RCC-CC). Methods: Immunohistochemistry using a PD-L1 polyclonal antibody was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) that contained 115 surgical specimens of RCC-CC. Cases were classified based on the absence or presence of staining intensity in the cytoplasm and membranes of the tumor cells. Statistical analysis was used to determine the association of PD-L1 expression with classic prognostic factors and tumor recurrence. Results: PD-L1 expression was positive in 56.5 % of tumors. The univariate analysis showed a correlation between PD-L1 expression and nuclear Fuhrman grade (p = 0.021) and microvascular tumor embolization (p = 0.039). One hundred and four patients were monitored for a mean time of 115.7 months. Seventeen patients (16.3 %) suffered tumor recurrence. Negative outcomes were associated with higher nuclear grade tumors, PD-L1 expression, and the presence of microvascular invasion. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that PD-L1 expression is an important prognostic factor in RCC-CC. © 2015 Leite et al.

Canavez F.C.,Genoa Biotecnologia SA | Luche D.D.,Genoa Biotecnologia SA | Stothard P.,University of Alberta | Leite K.R.M.,Genoa Biotecnologia SA | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2012

Cattle are divided into 2 groups referred to as taurine and indicine, both of which have been under strong artificial selection due to their importance for human nutrition. A side effect of this domestication includes a loss of genetic diversity within each specialized breed. Recently, the first taurine genome was sequenced and assembled, allowing for a better understanding of this ruminant species. However, genetic information from indicine breeds has been limited. Here, we present the first genome sequence of an indicine breed (Nellore) generated with 52X coverage by SOLiD sequencing platform. As expected, both genomes share high similarity at the nucleotide level for all autosomes and the X chromosome. Regarding the Y chromosome, the homology was considerably lower, most likely due to uncompleted assembly of the taurine Y chromosome. We were also able to cover 97% of the annotated taurine protein-coding genes. © 2012 The American Genetic Association.

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