Taufkirchen, Germany
Taufkirchen, Germany

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Unal N.,GenISys GmbH | Charlton M.D.B.,University of Southampton | Wang Y.,University of Southampton | Waizmann U.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | And 2 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2011

The quality of e-beam proximity effect correction depends on the quality of the proximity effect model parameters, which are not accessible to direct measurement. Monte Carlo simulation is capable of determining the electron scattering coefficients, but does not include the process induced effects such as resist blur. Therefore, various experimental methods have been suggested (Stevensat et al. (1986) [1]; Rishton and Kern (1987) [2]; Hudek (2006) [3]). Most are either highly labor intensive due to a large required number of critical dimension measurements, or simple in the experimental evaluation, but limited in accuracy (Babin and Svintsov (1992) [4]), since resist effects interfere with the evaluation criterion. This paper presents an easy to adapt experimental calibration method based on visual inspection of a "Best Dose Sensor", and its application to calibrate long- and mid-range effects. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Bolten J.,AMO GmbH | Wahlbrink T.,AMO GmbH | Koo N.,AMO GmbH | Kurz H.,AMO GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2010

A proximity effect correction (PEC) technique for E-beam lithography is presented which overcomes hardware limitations of many older E-beam writers regarding the number of physical dose classes by a unique combination of gray scale techniques with PEC using the Layout BEAMER software. The benefit is not only an improvement in critical dimension control, but also an improvement in line edge roughness (LER). Compared to standard PEC techniques the percentage line width deviation has been dramatically reduced by more than a factor of three. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Unal N.,GenISys GmbH | Mahalu D.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Raslin O.,Weizmann Institute of Science | Ritter D.,GenISys GmbH | And 2 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2010

New nano applications, like T-gates, bridges, mirror arrays, blazed gratings, 3D zone plates, 3D holograms and MEMS devices require highly accurate 3D patterning of resist. De facto, Electron-beam (EB) lithography is a process for high resolution patterning in lateral dimensions. The aforementioned 3D applications, imply accurate control of resist thickness, after development, thus critically depending on proximity effect corrections (PEC) in the third dimension. We show a feasibility test for a new 3D PEC approach, using Layout BEAMER e-beam lithography software. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Erfurth W.,Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics | Thompson A.,DisChem Inc. | Unal N.,GenISys GmbH
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper presents the findings of a cationic surface active agent used to promote adhesion on an InGaAs multilayer system on GaAs. The improved adhesion of the HSQ resist allowed the electron exposure dose to be reduced by a factor of four, and enabled the production of features sizes down to 30nm. Moreover, the process latitude is greatly increased for both small and large lithographic features. © 2013 SPIE.


Arat K.T.,GenISys GmbH | Bolten J.,AMO GmbH | Klimpel T.,GenISys GmbH | Unal N.,GenISys GmbH
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

The electric field distribution and charging effects in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were studied by extending a Monte-Carlo based SEM simulator by a fast and accurate multigrid (MG) based 3D electric field solver. The main focus is on enabling short simulation times with maintaining sufficient accuracy, so that SEM simulation can be used in practical applications. The implementation demonstrates a gain in computation speed, when compared to a Gauss-Seidel based reference solver is roughly factor of 40, with negligible differences in the result (∼10-6 V). In addition, the simulations were compared with experimental SEM measurements using also complex 3D sample, showing that i) the modelling of e-fields improves the simulation accuracy, and ii) multigrid method provide a significant benefit in terms of simulation time. © 2016 SPIE.


Motzek K.,Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Systems and Device Technology | Vogler U.,SUSS MicroOptics SA | Hennemeyer M.,Suss MicroTec | Hornung M.,Suss MicroTec | And 3 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2011

We use numerical simulation and optimization algorithms to apply optical proximity correction (OPC) to different mask structures for exposure on a Mask Aligner in proximity mode. The range of OPC solutions reaches from subtle changes in the mask layout to masks that have lost almost all resemblance to the structure to be printed. An extreme case is the printing of periodic structures where we make use of the image reversal caused by the Talbot effect. We also show the improvement that can be obtained when co-optimizing the angular spectrum of the illumination, i.e. when performing a source-mask optimization (SMO). © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Rommel M.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | Hoffmann K.E.,Rosenheim University of Applied Sciences | Reindl T.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | Weis J.,Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research | And 2 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2012

In this work we evaluate two different Monte-Carlo simulation approaches for determining the Point Spread Function (PSF) for 100 keV high resolution electron beam lithography. One method takes secondary electron generation into account, whereas the other one does not. The two different PSF determined for the same substrate are used for the proximity effect correction of two types of special designed test patterns. The exposed structures show indeed a significant influence of the secondary electrons enhancing the PSF in the mid-range distance of 10 nm to 1 μm. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Shao J.,Fudan University | Zhang S.,Fudan University | Liu J.,Fudan University | Lu B.-R.,Fudan University | And 3 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2015

This paper reports our novel work on Y shape gate formation in a single layer of ZEP520A resist by electron beam lithography (EBL) for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). Dose modification is first calculated by three dimensional proximity effect correction (3D PEC) with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and contrast curves. This method enables Y gates with sub-100 nm foot-widths to be fabricated. The Y-shape profile of single layer ZEP520A resist with one step exposure has been systematically assessed and compared with that of the conventional T shape profile. It has been demonstrated that the Y shape profile is as good as the T shape profile. However, Y shape profile in resists for Y-gates exhibits unique advantages over T shape gates. First, the process is simple with one layer resist other than bilayer or tri-layer resist stack; second, the cross-sectional area in the same space zone is bigger than T shape gate, so the device resistance is lower than that one; third, the Y gate has higher mechanical reliability and smaller horizontal space occupancy. The quality of resist profile when using single layer ZEP520A resist will be detailed in this paper. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


The present disclosure relates to beam writing technologies. In detail, a technique for compensating process artifacts of a mask layout transfer process is described. A method implementation of that technique comprises modeling, for a target mask layout, an intensity profile resulting from exposing a resist on a masking layer by beam writing. Further, a contour and a profile of the exposed resist after development are modeled from the intensity profile. Then, a geometry of the masking layer after etching is modeled from the resist contour and the resist profile. For any deviation of the modeled geometry from the target mask layout, an adjustment compensating the deviation can thus be determined.


The present disclosure relates to beam writing technologies. In detail, a technique for compensating process artifacts of a mask layout transfer process is described. A method implementation of that technique comprises modeling, for a target mask layout, an intensity profile resulting from exposing a resist on a masking layer by beam writing. Further, a contour and a profile of the exposed resist after development are modeled from the intensity profile. Then, a geometry of the masking layer after etching is modeled from the resist contour and the resist profile. For any deviation of the modeled geometry from the target mask layout, an adjustment compensating the deviation can thus be determined.

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