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Sosnay P.R.,Johns Hopkins University | Sosnay P.R.,Perdana University | Siklosi K.R.,Johns Hopkins University | Van Goor F.,Vertex Pharmaceuticals | And 24 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Allelic heterogeneity in disease-causing genes presents a substantial challenge to the translation of genomic variation into clinical practice. Few of the almost 2,000 variants in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene CFTR have empirical evidence that they cause cystic fibrosis. To address this gap, we collected both genotype and phenotype data for 39,696 individuals with cystic fibrosis in registries and clinics in North America and Europe. In these individuals, 159 CFTR variants had an allele frequency of ł0.01%. These variants were evaluated for both clinical severity and functional consequence, with 127 (80%) meeting both clinical and functional criteria consistent with disease. Assessment of disease penetrance in 2,188 fathers of individuals with cystic fibrosis enabled assignment of 12 of the remaining 32 variants as neutral, whereas the other 20 variants remained of indeterminate effect. This study illustrates that sourcing data directly from well-phenotyped subjects can address the gap in our ability to interpret clinically relevant genomic variation. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tsui L.-C.,University of Hong Kong | Dorfman R.,GeneYouIn
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology | Year: 2013

The positional cloning of the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF) was the important first step in understanding the basic defect and pathophysiology of the disease. This study aims to provide a historical account of key developments as well as factors that contributed to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene identification work. A redefined gene structure based on the full sequence of the gene derived from the Human Genome Project is presented, along with brief reviews of the transcription regulatory sequences for the CFTR gene, the role of mRNA splicing in gene regulation and CF disease, and, various related sequences in the human genome and other species. Because CF mutations and genotype-phenotype correlations are covered by our colleagues (Ferec C, Cutting GR. 2012. Assessing the disease-liability of mutations in CFTR. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a009480), we only attempt to provide an introduction of the CF mutation database here for reference purposes. © 2013 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

Wernet M.F.,New York University | Wernet M.F.,Stanford University | Meier K.M.,New York University | Baumann-Klausener F.,University of Zurich | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2014

The elbow/no ocelli (elb/noc) complex of Drosophila melanogaster encodes two paralogs of the evolutionarily conserved NET family of zinc finger proteins. These transcriptional repressors share a conserved domain structure, including a single atypical C2H2 zinc finger. In flies, Elb and Noc are important for the development of legs, eyes and tracheae. Vertebrate NET proteins play an important role in the developing nervous system, and mutations in the homolog ZNF703 human promote luminal breast cancer. However, their interaction with transcriptional regulators is incompletely understood. Here we show that loss of both Elb and Noc causes mis-specification of polarization-sensitive photoreceptors in the 'dorsal rim area' (DRA) of the fly retina. This phenotype is identical to the loss of the homeodomain transcription factor Homothorax (Hth)/dMeis. Development of DRA ommatidia and expression of Hth are induced by the Wingless/Wnt pathway. Our data suggest that Elb/Noc genetically interact with Hth, and we identify two conserved domains crucial for this function. Furthermore, we show that Elb/Noc specifically interact with the transcription factor Orthodenticle (Otd)/Otx, a crucial regulator of rhodopsin gene transcription. Interestingly, different Elb/Noc domains are required to antagonize Otd functions in transcriptional activation, versus transcriptional repression. We propose that similar interactions between vertebrate NET proteins and Meis and Otx factors might play a role in development and disease. © 2014 Wernet et al.

Dupuis A.,University of Toronto | Ooi C.Y.,University of New South Wales | Dorfman R.,GeneYouIn | Sontag M.K.,University of Colorado at Denver | And 5 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2016

Rationale:Meconium ileus (MI) is a perinatal complication in cystic fibrosis (CF), which is only minimally influenced by environmental factors. We derived and examined MI prevalence (MIP) scores to assess CFTR phenotype-phenotype correlation for severe mutations.Method:MIP scores were established using a Canadian CF population (n = 2,492) as estimates of the proportion of patients with MI among all patients carrying the same CFTR mutation, focusing on patients with p.F508del as the second allele. Comparisons were made to the registries from the US CF Foundation (n = 43,432), Italy (Veneto/Trentino/Alto Adige regions) (n = 1,788), and Germany (n = 3,596).Results:The prevalence of MI varied among the different registries (13-21%). MI was predominantly prevalent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency carrying "severe" CFTR mutations. In this severe spectrum MIP scores further distinguished between mutation types, for example, G542X (0.31) with a high, F508del (0.22) with a moderate, and G551D (0.08) with a low MIP score. Higher MIP scores were associated with more severe clinical phenotypes, such as a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = 0.01) and body mass index z score (P = 0.04).Conclusions:MIP scores can be used to rank CFTR mutations according to their clinical severity and provide a means to expand delineation of CF phenotypes.Genet Med 18 4, 333-340. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

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