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Ithaca, WI, United States

Thomas J.M.,University of Missouri | Lock S.L.,Genex Cooperative Inc. | Poock S.E.,University of Missouri | Ellersieck M.R.,University of Missouri | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that delayed insemination of nonestrous cows would increase pregnancy rates when using sexsorted semen in conjunction with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Estrus was synchronized for 656 suckled beef cows with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release (CIDR) protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 g progesterone] on d 0, 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7, and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after CIDR removal) with conventional semen regardless of estrous expression, 2) FTAI with sex-sorted semen regardless of estrous expression, or 3) FTAI with sex-sorted semen for cows having expressed estrus and delayed AI 20 h after final GnRH for cows failing to express estrus. A treatment × estrous expression interaction was found (P < 0.0001). Higher pregnancy rates (P < 0.0001) were achieved with conventional semen (Treatment 1; 77%) than with sex-sorted semen (Treatments 2 and 3; 51 and 42%, respectively) among cows that expressed estrus. However, among cows that failed to express estrus, delayed insemination with sex-sorted semen yielded higher (P < 0.0001) pregnancy rates than with sexsorted semen at the standard time (Treatments 2 and 3; 3 versus 36%, respectively). Furthermore, among cows that failed to express estrus, FTAI pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen at the delayed time (36%) were comparable (P = 0.9) to those achieved using conventional semen at the standard time (Treatment 1; 37%). These results indicate that delaying AI of nonestrous cows by 20 h from the standard FTAI improves pregnancy rates when sex-sorted semen is used with FTAI. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

Hendricks K.E.M.,University of Florida | Penfold L.M.,White Oak Conservation Center | Evenson D.P.,SCSA Diagnostics | Kaproth M.T.,Genex Cooperative Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2010

Biological samples, including cryopreserved sperm, are routinely X-rayed during air shipment. The goal was to investigate the impact of X-irradiation used for checked and carry-on luggage on bovine sperm chromatin integrity and postfertilization in vitro embryonic development. Frozen domestic bull sperm (Bos taurus) (n = 9 bulls) stored in a dry shipper (-160 °C) was screened by X-irradiation 0, 1, 2, and 3 times as either carry-on or checked luggage. Duplicate straws were thawed, and sperm were assessed for chromatin damage using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and by postfertilization in vitro developmental competence of mature oocytes. Multiple exposure to X-rays did not significantly affect sperm chromatin integrity assessed by SCSA. There were lower proportions of oocytes cleaved (P = 0.07; 21.6 ± 3.1% vs. 29.4 ± 3.1%, 24.9 ± 3.1%, and 25.7 ± 3.3% for 3 vs. 0, 1, and 2 times, respectively; least-squares means ± SEM) and that developed to blastocysts (P = 0.06; 9.0 ± 1.7% vs. 13.8 ± 1.7%, 11.5 ± 1.7%, and 12.6 ± 1.9%, respectively) when fertilization was performed with sperm X-rayed 3 times using checked luggage irradiation; developmental competence (percentage cleaved embryos becoming blastocysts) was unaffected. There were no deleterious effects of other X-irradiation treatments on embryo development. We inferred that screening by X-irradiation may reduce the ability of sperm to activate oocyte cleavage after multiple exposures at the checked luggage dose. However, there was no evidence that competence of embryos to become blastocysts was reduced by X-irradiation (45.4 ± 5.7%, 40.4 ± 5.7%, 46.4 ± 6.1%, and 41.8 ± 5.7% for 0, 1, 2, and 3 doses, respectively), but potential long-term epigenetic effects are unknown. © 2010.

Abdel-Azim G.,Genex Cooperative Inc.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Field data were collected over a period of 2 yr by artificial insemination technicians for the purpose of evaluating differences among bulls in their fertility when synchronization and semen sorting were involved. First, main effects of synchronization and semen sorting were found to reduce bull fertility by 1.5 and 12.7%, respectively. Second, the interaction of both factors with bull fertility significantly enhanced the evaluation models. Differences between 2 sets of adjusted conception rates for synchronized and nonsynchronized services ranged from 0.5 to 2.9%, whereas differences between 2 sets of adjusted conception rates for sorted and conventional semen ranged from -1.8 to 15.2%. This implies that using conventional fertility models that ignore these effects may not be sufficiently accurate in situations where synchronization or semen sorting are involved. Accounting for synchronization and especially for semen sorting to evaluate bulls on their fertility and the production of separate sets of conception rates under each situation are essential. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

Kennedy C.E.,University of Missouri | Krieger K.B.,Genex Cooperative Inc. | Sutovsky M.,University of Missouri | Xu W.,MOFA ICB | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Reproduction and Development | Year: 2014

SUMMARY: Post-acrosomal WW-domain binding protein (PAWP) is a signaling molecule located in the post-acrosomal sheath (PAS) of mammalian spermatozoa. We hypothesized that the proper integration of PAWP in the sperm PAS is reflective of bull-sperm quality and fertility. Cryopreserved semen samples from 298 sires of acceptable, but varied, fertility used in artificial insemination services were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry for PAWP protein. In normal spermatozoa, PAWP fluorescence formed a regular band around the proximal PAS. Anomalies of PAWP labeling in defective spermatozoa were reflected in flow cytometry by varied intensities of PAWP-induced fluorescence. Distinct sperm phenotypes were also identified, including morphologically normal and some defective spermatozoa with moderate levels of PAWP; grossly defective spermatozoa with low/no PAWP; and defective spermatozoa with high PAWP. Analysis by ImageStream flow cytometry confirmed the prevalence of abnormal sperm phenotypes in the spermatozoa with abnormal PAWP content. Live/dead staining and video recording showed that some abnormal spermatozoa are viable and capable of progressive motility. Conventional flow-cytometric measurements of PAWP correlated significantly with semen quality and fertility parameters that reflect the sires' artificial insemination fertility, including secondary sperm morphology, conception rate, non-return rate, and residual value. A multiplex, flow-cytometric test detecting PAWP, aggresomes (ubiquitinated protein aggregates), and acrosomal integrity (peanut-agglutinin-lectin labeling) had a predictive value for conception rate, as demonstrated by step-wise regression analysis. We conclude that PAWP correlates with semen/fertility parameters used in the cattle artificial insemination industry, making PAWP a potential biomarker of bull fertility. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Genex Cooperative Inc. and Eastern Artificial Insemination Cooperative Inc. | Date: 1997-03-11

animal semen. animal breeding; artificial insemination of animals; and genetic research in the field of developing animal livestock.

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