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Christophersen H.M.,University of Adelaide | Christophersen H.M.,GeneWorks Pty Ltd. | Andrew Smith F.,University of Adelaide | Smith S.E.,University of Adelaide
Frontiers in Physiology | Year: 2012

We used medic (Medicago truncatula) to investigate effects of inoculation with two arbus- cular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and application of arsenate (AsV) and phosphate (Pi) on mechanisms underlying increased tolerance (in terms of growth) of AM plants to AsV. We tested the hypotheses that (1) inoculation with AM fungi results in down-regulation of MtPht1;1 and MtPht1;2 genes (encoding high-affinity Pi and AsV uptake systems in the direct root epidermal pathway) and up-regulation of the AM-induced MtPht1;4 (responsible for transfer of Pi from the arbuscular interface to cortical cells), and (2) these changes are involved in decreased As uptake relative to P uptake and hence increased As tolerance. We also measured expression of MtMT4, a Pi starvation-inducible gene, other genes encoding Pi uptake systems (MtPht 1;5 and MtPht1;6) and arsenate reductase (MtACR) and phy- tochelatin synthase (MtPCS), to gain insights into broader aspects of P transfers in AM plants and possible detoxification mechanisms. Medic responded slightly to AM coloniza- tion in terms of growth in the absence of As, but positively in terms of P uptake. Both growth and P responses in AM plants were positive when As was applied, indicating As tolerance relative to non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. All AM plants showed high expression of MtPT4 and those inoculated with Glomus mosseae showed higher selectivity against As (shown by P/As molar ratios) and much lower expression of MtPht1;1 (and to some extent MtPht1;2) than Glomus intraradices-inoculated or NM plants. Results are consistent with increased P/As selectivity in AM plants (particularly those inoculated with G. mosseae)as a consequence of high P uptake but little or no As uptake via the AM pathway. However, the extent to which selectivity is dependent on down-regulation of direct Pi and AsV uptake through epidermal cells is still not clear. Marked up-regulation of a PCS gene and an ACR gene in AM plants may also be involved and requires further investigation. © 2012 Christophersen, Smith and Smith.

News Article | November 3, 2016

Synthetic biology deals with the design and construction of new biological entities. It is an interdependent combination of biology and engineering for the construction of artificial biological system. It involves the synthesis of complex, biologically based systems which display functions that do not exist in nature. Synthetic biology starts with the advances in molecular, cell, and systems biology and follow to transform biology in the way that synthesis transformed chemistry and integrated circuit design transformed computing. The synthetic biology market is mainly driven by the growing demand for improved drugs and vaccines. Advancement in molecular biology is another key factor to drive the synthetic biology market. Synthetic biotechnology widely used in different application areas such as healthcare, chemicals, agriculture etc. This has fueled the growth of global synthetic biology market. However, some issues like bio-safety and bio-security of synthetic biology is expected to hamper growth of synthetic biology industry. The global synthetic biology market is segmented on the basis of product, technology, application and region. Based on different products, market is segmented as core and enabling products. The core product segment futher segmented into synthetic DNA, synthetic genes, synthetic cells, XNA (xeno nucleic acid) and chassis organisms. And the enabling product segment further classified into DNA synthesis and oligonucleotide synthesis. Furthermore, technology of the synthetic biology market can be segmented as genome engineering, DNA sequencing, bioinformatics and biological components & integrated systems. Know more before buying this report @ The report provides a comprehensive view on the synthetic biology market we have included a detailed company market share analysis, product portfolio of the major industry participants. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s Five Forces model for the synthetic biology market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein application segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness. Application segments have been analyzed based on historic, present, and future trends, and the market has been estimated from 2015 to 2020 in terms of revenue (USD Million). Healthcare, chemicals, agriculture and other applications such as biosecurity, R&D, energy environment etc. are the application segments of synthetic biology market from which healthcare application segment holds highest market share in terms of revenue. Get in-depth TOC (Table of Contents) with Tables and Figures @ Major regional segments analyzed in this study include North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. This report also provides further bifurcation of region on the country level. Major countries analyzed in this reports are U.S., Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India, and Brazil. Synthetic biology market was dominated by Europe in 2014 and is expected have consistent growth in coming years. Europe is followed by North America. Some of the key players for global synthetic biology market includes DuPont, Inc., Agrivida, Inc., GeneWorks Pty Ltd., Biosearch Technologies, Inc.,  Evolva SA, Exxon Mobil Corporation, Green Biologics Limited, REG Life Sciences, LLC and Royal DSM. This report segments the global synthetic biology market as follows:

Cummings N.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | King R.,GeneWorks Pty Ltd | Rickers A.,GeneWorks Pty Ltd | Kaspi A.,Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute | And 5 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: The primary goal of genetic linkage analysis is to identify genes affecting a phenotypic trait. After localisation of the linkage region, efficient genetic dissection of the disease linked loci requires that functional variants are identified across the loci. These functional variations are difficult to detect due to extent of genetic diversity and, to date, incomplete cataloguing of the large number of variants present both within and between populations. Massively parallel sequencing platforms offer unprecedented capacity for variant discovery, however the number of samples analysed are still limited by cost per sample. Some progress has been made in reducing the cost of resequencing using either multiplexing methodologies or through the utilisation of targeted enrichment technologies which provide the ability to resequence genomic areas of interest rather that full genome sequencing.Results: We developed a method that combines current multiplexing methodologies with a solution-based target enrichment method to further reduce the cost of resequencing where region-specific sequencing is required. Our multiplex/enrichment strategy produced high quality data with nominal reduction of sequencing depth. We undertook a genotyping study and were successful in the discovery of novel SNP alleles in all samples at uniplex, duplex and pentaplex levels.Conclusion: Our work describes the successful combination of a targeted enrichment method and index barcode multiplexing to reduce costs, time and labour associated with processing large sample sets. Furthermore, we have shown that the sequencing depth obtained is adequate for credible SNP genotyping analysis at uniplex, duplex and pentaplex levels. © 2010 Cummings et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Weiss Y.,James Cook University | Foret S.,James Cook University | Foret S.,Australian National University | Hayward D.C.,Australian National University | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: As a step towards understanding coral immunity we present the first whole transcriptome analysis of the acute responses of Acropora millepora to challenge with the bacterial cell wall derivative MDP and the viral mimic poly I:C, defined immunogens provoking distinct but well characterised responses in higher animals.Results: These experiments reveal similarities with the responses both of arthropods and mammals, as well as coral-specific effects. The most surprising finding was that MDP specifically induced three members of the GiMAP gene family, which has been implicated in immunity in mammals but is absent from Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. Like their mammalian homologs, GiMAP genes are arranged in a tandem cluster in the coral genome.Conclusions: A phylogenomic survey of this gene family implies ancient origins, multiple independent losses and lineage-specific expansions during animal evolution. Whilst functional convergence cannot be ruled out, GiMAP expression in corals may reflect an ancestral role in immunity, perhaps in phagolysosomal processing. © 2013 Weiss et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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