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Neu-Ulm, Germany

Zechner U.,Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz | Hameister H.,Genetikum
Sexual Development

It was noted only recently that the mammalian X/Y sex chromosome system originated late in our therian ancestors. The question is, what makes the X/Y sex chromosome system so special that it has replaced the original Z/W sex chromosome system? Two classes of genes are overrepresented on the X chromosome: sex and reproduction genes and brain-related genes. The X chromosome has acquired bursts of young male-biased genes engaged in sex and reproduction which exemplifies the dynamics of sex chromosome evolution. Brain genes are old genes and display the most conserved transcriptome. The new therian X chromosome was formed by fusion of chromosome building blocks already bearing the highest density of brain genes in the ancestral vertebrate karyotype. These building blocks constitute an X chromosome haplotype that undergoes strong selection and benefits both sexes by oscillating between males and females. We believe that this strategy is superior to male-driven Z/W sex chromosome evolution. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Vogl I.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Medicine Dr Klein | Benet-Pages A.,MGZ Munich | Eck S.H.,Center For Human Genetics And Laboratory Diagnostics Dr Klein | Kuhn M.,Genetikum | And 7 more authors.

Over the past 6 years, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been established as a valuable highthroughput method for research in molecular genetics and has successfully been employed in the identification of rare and common genetic variations. Although the high expectations regarding the discovery of new diagnostic targets and an overall reduction of cost have been achieved, technological challenges in instrument handling, robustness of the chemistry, and data analysis need to be overcome. Each workflow and sequencing platform have their particular problems and caveats, which need to be addressed. Regarding NGS, there is a variety of different enrichment methods, sequencing devices, or technologies as well as a multitude of analyzing software products available. In this manuscript, the authors focus on challenges in data analysis when employing different target enrichment methods and the best applications for each of them. Source

Deschauer M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Joshi P.R.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Glaser D.,Genetikum | Hanisch F.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | And 2 more authors.

Summary: Recessive mutations in the anoctamin 5 (ANO5) gene have been recently identified in families with limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2L) and distal non-dysferlin Miyoshi myopathy. Anoctamin 5 is supposed to be a putative calcium-activated chloride channel. We report five German patients (four index patients) with muscle dystrophy due to mutations in the ANO5 gene. Sequencing of the ANO5 exons 5, 13 and 20 was performed to screen for a common c.191dupA mutation and two other reported mutations (c.1295C>G and p.R758C). The whole coding region of the ANO5 gene was sequenced to identify new mutations. Phenotypically, three patients showed LGMD and one patient Miyoshi type distal myopathy. One sibling had asymptomatic hyperCKemia. The age at onset was 64, 38 and 40 years in patients with LGMD and 23 years in the patient with distal myopathy. The four symptomatic patients showed remarkable asymmetric muscle involvement. There was marked CK elevation (11 to 30 times). Electron microscopy showed multifocal gaps in the sarcolemmal membrane. All patients harboured the common c.191dupA mutation in at least one allele. Two patients with LGMD were homozygous and the third patient and his asymptomatic sister were compound heterozygous for the c.191dupA mutation and a novel p.T548I mutation. The patient with distal myopathy harboured the p.R758C mutation in the second allele. Mutations in the ANO5 gene seem to be a relatively common cause of muscular dystrophy in Germany. Cases with late onset or asymptomatic hyperCKemia can occur. Clinically, asymmetric manifestation is typical. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Huppke P.,University of Gottingen | Wegener E.,University of Gottingen | Bohrer-Rabel H.,Genetikum | Bolz H.J.,Center for Human Genetics Bioscientia | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

So far very few patients with sequence variants in the closely related tectonic genes TCTN1-3 have been described. By multi-gene panel next-generation sequencing (NGS) in patients with Joubert syndrome, we identified two more patients and summarize what is currently known about the phenotypes associated with sequence variants in these genes. In a boy aged 12 years with intellectual disability and the classical molar tooth sign on MRI, a homozygous splice-site sequence variant in TCTN3 leading to in-frame skipping of exon 7 was detected. A previously described non-truncating sequence variant in TCTN3 was also associated with Joubert syndrome, whereas four truncating sequence variants were detected in patients with Meckel-Gruber or Mohr-Majewski syndrome. The second patient, a boy aged 7 years with severe psychomotor retardation, was found to carry a homozygous canonic splice-site sequence variant in TCTN2. So far, only three sequence variants associated with Joubert syndrome and two with Meckel-Gruber syndrome have been described in this gene. Reviewing the clinical data on patients with sequence variants in the tectonic genes TCTN1-3 reveals that all of them have a neurological phenotype with vermis hypoplasia or occipital encephalocele associated with severe intellectual disability in the surviving patients. In contrast, other features frequently seen in patients with ciliopathies such as nephronophthisis, liver fibrosis, retinal dystrophy or coloboma have not been reported. Our patients emphasize the usefulness and efficacy of a comprehensive NGS panel approach. A concise genetic diagnosis may help to prevent unnecessary investigations and improve the clinical management of these patients. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Schuller A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Kornblum C.,University of Bonn | Deschauer M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Vorgerd M.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 7 more authors.

As Pompe disease glycogen storage disease type 2 with a severely reduced life expectancy is now a treatable disorder, accurate diagnostic procedures and evidence-based indications for therapy are mandatory. We screened the literature for consensus reports and published trial data of late-onset Pompe disease. These data were summarized in a Delphi consensus method approach. The clinical suspicion of late-onset Pompe disease should be substantiated by the validated dry blood spot test measurement for acid α-glucosidase activity. Alternatively, enzyme activity analysis in lymphocytes is also feasible. Glucosidase α gene sequencing for verifying the diagnosis is recommended. A muscle biopsy including measurements of acid α-glucosidase activity and glycogen concentration is warranted for differential diagnosis in selected cases. The confirmed diagnosis should lead to a multidisciplinary treatment approach, possibly including enzyme replacement therapy. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. Source

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