Zheng F.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital |
Zhang M.,Kunming Medical University |
Sethna F.,Genetics Program |
Yan L.,Neuroscience Program |
And 2 more authors.
Learning and Memory | Year: 2016
Mental health and cognitive functions are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although having active lifestyle with physical exercise improves learning and memory, how it interacts with the specific key molecular regulators of synaptic plasticity is largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of voluntary running on long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory formation in mice lacking type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1), a neurospecific synaptic enzyme that contributes to Ca2+-stimulated cAMP production. Following 1 mo of voluntary running-wheel exercise, the impaired LTP and object recognition memory in AC1 knockout (KO) mice were significantly attenuated. Running up-regulated exon II mRNA level of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), though it failed to increase exon I and IV mRNAs in the hippocampus of AC1 KO mice. Intrahippocampal infusion of recombinant BDNF was sufficient to rescue LTP and object recognition memory defects in AC1 KO mice. Therefore, voluntary running and exogenous BDNF application overcome the defective Ca2+-stimulated cAMP signaling. Our results also demonstrate that alteration in Ca2+-stimulated cAMP can affect the molecular outcome of physical exercise.
Zhang Y.,Genetics Program |
Thomas C.P.,University of Iowa
Transplantation Proceedings | Year: 2012
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney injury (AKI) which frequently progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In 50% of affected patients, mutations in complement regulatory proteins cause inappropriate complement activation with endothelial injury. Complement factor H (CFH) mutations cause 25% of aHUS cases; these patients have an 80% recurrence risk after kidney transplantation. Eculizumab, an anti-C5 antibody, is effective in limiting hemolysis episodes in patients with aHUS, but less is known about preventing recurrence after kidney transplantation. Herein we report the use of prophylactic eculizumab in an adult with aHUS who underwent kidney transplantation. A 31-year-old female presented with aHUS and progressive AKI associated with low complement 3 level leading to ESRD despite plasmapheresis and corticosteroids. She had a heterozygous nonsense mutation in CFH and reduced plasma CFH levels. She was given preoperative plasmapheresis and eculizumab and underwent living unrelated renal transplantation. Postoperatively, eculizumab was dosed to achieve low functional complement 5 levels and low soluble membrane attack complex levels and she has maintained excellent graft function without aHUS recurrence. We propose that eculizumab with titrated dosing should be used in CFH-mediated aHUS patients who are at a high risk of recurrence.
News Article | November 25, 2015
3A Composites AirexBaltekBanova’s research on applied genetics to improve balsa quality in commercial plantations has been awarded the Sacha Award in the category of Forestry Research. The Improved Balsa Genetics Program analyses genetic and propagation to obtain identical specimens to be used to establish improved balsa plantations. The company has also won an award for its long-term commitment to best environmental practices in the use of legal timber and forest care. ‘3A Composites AirexBaltekBanova has always been a driver in making forestry management sustainable and we heavily invest in R&D to improve the quality of our balsa’s sourcing business,’ said Roman Thomassin, CEO of 3A Composites Core Materials division, producer and manufacturer of the AirexBaltekBanova products. ‘All our balsa production centers in the world are 100% FSCcertified and our balsa products come from sustainable resources.’ The Sacha Awards are awarded every two years and cover the best forestry management and processing of legal timber practices in Ecuador. This story is reprinted from material from 3A Composites, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.
PubMed | Genetics Program;
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology | Year: 2012
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo--dioxin (TCDD) increases fatty acid (FA) transport and FA levels resulting in hepatic steatosis in mice. Diet as a source of lipids was investigated using customized diets, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) null mice, and (14)C-oleate (18:1n9) uptake studies. C57BL/6 mice fed with 5, 10, or 15% fat or 50, 60 or 70% carbohydrate diets exhibited increased relative liver weight following gavage with 30 g/kg TCDD for 168 h. Hepatic lipid extract analysis from mice fed with 5, 10, and 15% fat diets identified a dose-dependent increase in total FAs induced by TCDD. Mice fed with fat diet also exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the dietary essential linoleic (18:2n6) and -linolenic (18:3n3) acids. No dose-dependent FA increase was detected on carbohydrate diets, suggesting dietary fat as a source of lipids in TCDD-induced steatosis as opposed to de novo lipogenesis. TCDD also induced oleate levels threefold in Scd1 null mice that are incapable of desaturating stearate (18:0). This is consistent with oleate representing > 90% of all monounsaturated FAs in rodent chow. Moreover, TCDD increased hepatic (14)C-oleate levels twofold in wild type and 2.4-fold in Scd1 null mice concurrent with the induction of intestinal and hepatic lipid transport genes (Slc27a, Fabp, Ldlr, Cd36, and Apob). In addition, computational scanning identified putative dioxin response elements and in vivo ChIP-chip analysis revealed regions of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) enrichment in lipid transport genes differentially regulated by TCDD. Collectively, these results suggest the AhR mediates increased uptake of dietary fats that contribute to TCDD-elicited hepatic steatosis.