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Ramos-brossier M.,University of Paris Descartes | Montani C.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Lebrun N.,University of Paris Descartes | Gritti L.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | And 17 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2015

Mutations in interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene have been associated with non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder. This protein interacts with synaptic partners like PSD-95 and PTPδ, regulating the formation and function of excitatory synapses. The aim of this work was to characterize the synaptic consequences of three IL1RAPL1 mutations, two novel causing the deletion of exon 6 (Δex6) and one point mutation (C31R), identified in patients with ID. Using immunofluorescence and electrophysiological recordings, we examined the effects of IL1RAPL1 mutant over-expression on synapse formation and function in cultured rodent hippocampal neurons. Δex6 but not C31R mutation leads to IL1RAPL1 protein instability and mislocalization within dendrites. Analysis of different markers of excitatory synapses and sEPSC recording revealed that both mutants fail to induce pre- and post-synaptic differentiation, contrary to WT IL1RAPL1 protein. Cell aggregation and immunoprecipitation assays in HEK293 cells showed a reduction of the interaction between IL1RAPL1 mutants and PTPδ that could explain the observed synaptogenic defect in neurons. However, these mutants do not affect all cellular signaling because their over-expression still activates JNK pathway. We conclude that both mutations described in this study lead to a partial loss of function of the IL1RAPL1 protein through different mechanisms. Our work highlights the important function of the trans-synaptic PTPδ/IL1RAPL1 interaction in synaptogenesis and as such in ID in the patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Grozeva D.,University of Cambridge | Carss K.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Spasic-Boskovic O.,University of Cambridge | Parker M.J.,Sheffield Clinical Genetics Service | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2014

To identify further Mendelian causes of intellectual disability (ID), we screened a cohort of 996 individuals with ID for variants in 565 known or candidate genes by using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach. Seven loss-of-function (LoF) mutations - four nonsense (c.1195A>T [p.Lys399&z.ast;], c.1333C>T [p.Arg445&z.ast;], c.1866C>G [p.Tyr622&z.ast;], and c.3001C>T [p.Arg1001&z.ast;]) and three frameshift (c.2177-2178del [p.Thr726Asnfs&z.ast;39], c.3771dup [p.Ser1258Glufs&z.ast;65], and c.3856del [p.Ser1286Leufs&z.ast;84]) - were identified in SETD5, a gene predicted to encode a methyltransferase. All mutations were compatible with de novo dominant inheritance. The affected individuals had moderate to severe ID with additional variable features of brachycephaly; a prominent high forehead with synophrys or striking full and broad eyebrows; a long, thin, and tubular nose; long, narrow upslanting palpebral fissures; and large, fleshy low-set ears. Skeletal anomalies, including significant leg-length discrepancy, were a frequent finding in two individuals. Congenital heart defects, inguinal hernia, or hypospadias were also reported. Behavioral problems, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, hand flapping with ritualized behavior, and autism, were prominent features. SETD5 lies within the critical interval for 3p25 microdeletion syndrome. The individuals with SETD5 mutations showed phenotypic similarity to those previously reported with a deletion in 3p25, and thus loss of SETD5 might be sufficient to account for many of the clinical features observed in this condition. Our findings add to the growing evidence that mutations in genes encoding methyltransferases regulating histone modification are important causes of ID. This analysis provides sufficient evidence that rare de novo LoF mutations in SETD5 are a relatively frequent (0.7%) cause of ID. © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Field M.,Genetics of Learning Disability Service | Scheffer I.E.,Florey Neurosciences Institute | Scheffer I.E.,University of Melbourne | Gill D.,Childrens Hospital at Westmead | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

Using a combination of linkage mapping and massively parallel sequencing of the X-chromosome exome, we identified an 18-bp deletion in exon 8 of the oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) gene in a family with X-linked Joubert syndrome (JBTS10). The deletion results in an in-frame deletion of six amino acids. New features not noted in the two previously reported cases of X-linked Joubert syndrome include the presence of polycystic kidney disease, polymicrogyria and hydrocephalus. Our study further underlines the power of genetic mapping combined with massively parallel sequencing as a powerful tool for novel disease gene and mutation discovery. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Hackett A.,Genetics of Learning Disability Service | Tarpey P.S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Licata A.,Jc Self Research Institute | Cox J.,Cambridge Institute of Medical Research | And 19 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

Mutations of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) gene have recently been associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) with microcephaly, optic atrophy and brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia, as well as with an X-linked syndrome having some FG-like features. Our group has recently identified four male probands from 358 probable XLMR families with missense mutations (p.Y268H, p.P396S, p.D710G and p.W919R) in the CASK gene. Congenital nystagmus, a rare and striking feature, was present in two of these families. We screened a further 45 probands with either nystagmus or microcephaly and mental retardation (MR), and identified two further mutations, a missense mutation (p.Y728C) and a splice mutation (c.2521-2A > T) in two small families with nystagmus and MR. Detailed clinical examinations of all six families, including an ophthalmological review in four families, were undertaken to further characterise the phenotype. We report on the clinical features of 24 individuals, mostly male, from six families with CASK mutations. The phenotype was variable, ranging from non-syndromic mild MR to severe MR associated with microcephaly and dysmorphic facial features. Carrier females were variably affected. Congenital nystagmus was found in members of four of the families. Our findings reinforce the CASK gene as a relatively frequent cause of XLMR in females and males. We further define the phenotypic spectrum and demonstrate that affected males with missense mutations or in-frame deletions in CASK are frequently associated with congenital nystagmus and XLMR, a striking feature not previously reported. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Birch R.C.,University of New South Wales | Hocking D.R.,La Trobe University | Cornish K.M.,Monash University | Menant J.C.,Falls and Balance Research Group | And 8 more authors.
Genes, Brain and Behavior | Year: 2015

Recent evidence suggests that early changes in postural control may be discernible among females with premutation expansions (55-200 CGG repeats) of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene at risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Cerebellar dysfunction is well described in males and females with FXTAS, yet the interrelationships between cerebellar volume, CGG repeat length, FMR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and changes in postural control remain unknown. This study examined postural sway during standing in a cohort of 22 males with the FMR1 premutation (ages 26-80) and 24 matched controls (ages 26-77). The influence of cerebellar volume, CGG repeat length and FMR1 mRNA levels on postural sway was explored using multiple linear regression. The results provide preliminary evidence that increasing CGG repeat length and decreasing cerebellar volume were associated with greater postural sway among premutation males. The relationship between CGG repeat length and postural sway was mediated by a negative association between CGG repeat size and cerebellar volume. While FMR1 mRNA levels were significantly elevated in the premutation group and correlated with CGG repeat length, FMR1 mRNA levels were not significantly associated with postural sway scores. These findings show for the first time that greater postural sway among males with the FMR1 premutation may reflect CGG repeat-mediated disruption in vulnerable cerebellar circuits implicated in postural control. However, longitudinal studies in larger samples are required to confirm whether the relationships between cerebellar volume, CGG repeat length and postural sway indicate greater risk for neurological decline. Cerebellar volume as a mediator of the effect of CGG repeat length on postural sway in FMR1 premutation males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

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