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Fuller M.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology
Clinical Lipidology | Year: 2012

Human diseases that result directly from alterations in sphingolipid metabolism are generally disorders of the degradation of these compounds. A defect in the lysosomal degradation of glucosylceramide results in the phenotype of Gauchers disease, the most common of the sphingolipidoses. The majority of cases of Gauchers disease result from mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme, acid -glucosidase. Although generally regarded as a single-gene disorder, in reality the disorder is complex, multifactorial and progressive. Understanding the pathogenic cascade in Gauchers disease will require an integrated and convincing biological approach; this review aims to explore how the study of sphingolipids, in addition to glucosylceramide, phospholipids and other related lipids, are advancing us towards achieving this goal. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Poole A.,Intensive Care Unit | Deane A.,Intensive Care Unit | Deane A.,University of Adelaide | Summers M.,Intensive Care Unit | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether fasting plasma citrulline concentration predicts subsequent glucose absorption in critically ill patients. Methods: In a prospective observational study involving 15 healthy and 20 critically ill subjects, fasting plasma citrulline concentrations were assayed in blood samples immediately prior to the administration of a liquid test meal (1 kcal/ml; containing 3 g of 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG)) that was infused directly into the small intestine. Serum 3-OMG concentrations were measured over the following 4 hours, with the area under the 3-OMG concentration curve (AUC) calculated as an index of glucose absorption. Results: The groups were well matched in terms of age, sex and body mass index (BMI) (healthy subjects versus patients, mean (range) values: age, 47 (18 to 88) versus 49 (21 to 77) years; sex ratio, 60% versus 80% male; BMI, 25.2 (18.8 to 30.0) versus 25.5 (19.4 to 32.2) kg/m2). Compared to the healthy subjects, patients who were critically ill had reduced fasting citrulline concentration (26.5 (13.9 to 43.0) versus 15.2 (5.7 to 28.6) μmol/L; P<0.01) and glucose absorption (3-OMG AUC, 79.7 (28.6 to 117.8) versus 61.0 (4.5 to 97.1) mmol/L/240 min; P=0.05). There was no relationship between fasting citrulline concentration and subsequent glucose absorption (r=0.28; P=0.12). Conclusions: Whereas both plasma citrulline concentrations and glucose absorption were reduced in critical illness, fasting plasma citrulline concentrations were not predictive of subsequent glucose absorption. These data suggest that fasting citrulline concentration does not appear to be a marker of small intestinal absorptive function in patients who are critically ill. © 2015 applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Source

Pyragius C.E.,University of Adelaide | Fuller M.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Ricciardelli C.,University of Adelaide | Oehler M.K.,University of Adelaide
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynaecological cancer. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is of critical importance to develop early detection tests and identify new therapeutic targets that would increase survival. Cancer cells depend on de novo lipid synthesis for the generation of fatty acids to meet the energy requirements for increased tumour growth. There is increasing evidence that lipid metabolism is deregulated in cancers, including ovarian cancer. The increased expression and activity of lipogenic enzymes is largely responsible for increased lipid synthesis, which is regulated by metabolic and oncogenic signalling pathways. This article reviews the latest knowledge on lipid metabolism and the alterations in the expression of lipogenic enzymes and downstream signalling pathways in ovarian cancer. Current developments for exploiting lipids as biomarkers for the detection of early stage ovarian cancer and therapeutic targets are discussed. Current research targeting lipogenic enzymes and lipids to increase the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy drugs is also highlighted. © 2013 licensee MDPI,Basel,Switzerland. Source

Hein L.K.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Duplock S.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Fuller M.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Fuller M.,University of Adelaide
Journal of Lipid Research | Year: 2013

Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) assists lysosomal function by facilitating interaction of hydrolases and activator proteins with sphingolipid substrates. Impaired lysosomal degradation of the sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GC) occurs in Gaucher disease due to an inherited deficiency of acid β-glucosidase, with secondary BMP alterations. We investigated the nature of BMP accumulation and whether its correction reduced the storage burden in a THP-1 macrophage model of Gaucher disease. Using sucrose gradients and detergent solubility, 98% of BMP resided in the detergent-soluble membranes (DSM) rather than in the detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) where 73% of GC predominated. There was a 2-fold widespread elevation in BMP, including the saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated species. Linoleic acid in the culture media selectively reduced BMP from 4.2 nmol/mg to 0.49 nmol/mg (except 18:1/18:2) and prevented up to one third of GC, dihexosylceramide (DHC), and trihexosylceramide (THC) from accumulating. The 2-fold reduction in these sphingolipids occurred only in the DRM and did not reduce 18:1/16:0. However, once GC had accumulated, linoleic acid could not reverse it, DHC, or THC, despite effectively reducing BMP. These results imply a causative link for BMP in the pathobiology of Gaucher disease and demonstrate that linoleic acid can shield the cell from excessive substrate accumulation. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

Hattersley K.J.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Hein L.K.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Fuller M.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Fuller M.,University of Adelaide
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Biological membranes are composed of functionally relevant liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains that coexist. Within the liquid-ordered domains are low-density microdomains known as rafts with a unique lipid composition that is crucial for their structure and function. Lipid raft composition is altered in sphingolipid storage disorders, and here we determined the lipid composition using a detergent and detergent-free method in spleen tissue, the primary site of pathology, in a mouse model of the sphingolipid storage disorder, Gaucher disease. The accumulating lipid, glucosylceramide, was 30- and 50-fold elevated in the rafts with the detergent and detergent-free method, respectively. Secondary accumulation of di- and trihexosylceramide resided primarily in the rafts with both methods. The phospholipids distributed differently with more than half residing in the rafts with the detergent-free method and less than 10% with the detergent method, with the exception of the fully saturated species that were primarily in the rafts. Individual isoforms of sphingomyelin correlated with detergent-free extraction and more than half resided in the raft fractions. However, this correlation was not seen with the detergent extraction method as sphingomyelin species were spread across both the raft and non-raft domains. Therefore caution must be exercised when interpreting phospholipid distribution in raft domains as it differs considerably depending on the method of isolation. Importantly, both methods revealed the same lipid alterations in the raft domains in the spleen of the Gaucher disease mouse model highlighting that either method is appropriate to determine membrane lipid changes in the diseased state. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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