Genetics and Molecular Pathology

North Adelaide, Australia

Genetics and Molecular Pathology

North Adelaide, Australia
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Kondagari G.S.,University of Sydney | Kondagari G.S.,University of New South Wales | King B.M.,Lysosomal Diseases Research Unit | Thomson P.C.,University of Sydney | And 6 more authors.
Experimental Neurology | Year: 2011

The blood brain barrier is the major obstacle to treating lysosomal storage disorders of the central nervous system such as canine fucosidosis. This barrier was overcome by three, monthly injections of recombinant canine α l-fucosidase enzyme were given intracisternally. In dogs treated from 8. weeks of age enzyme reached all areas of central nervous system as well as the cervical lymph node, bone marrow and liver. Brainstem and spinal cord samples from regions adjacent to the injection site had highest enzyme levels (39-73% of normal). Substantial enzyme activity (8.5-20% of normal controls) was found in the superficial brain compared to deeper regions (2.6-5.5% of normal). Treatment significantly reduced the fucosyl-linked oligosaccharide accumulation in most areas of CNS, liver and lymph node. In the surface and deep areas of lumbar spinal cord, oligosaccharide accumulation was corrected (79-80% reduction) to near normal levels (p< 0.05). In the spinal meninges (thoracic and lumbar) enzyme activity (35-39% of normal control) and substrate reduction (58-63% affected vehicle treated samples) reached levels similar to those seen in phenotypically normal carriers (p< 0.05).The procedure was safe and well-tolerated, treated (average 16%) dogs gained more weight (p< 0.05) and there was no antibody formation or inflammatory reaction in plasma and CSF following treatments. The capacity of early ERT to modify progression of biochemical storage in fucosidosis is promising as this disease is currently only amenable to treatment by bone marrow transplantation which entails unacceptably high risks for many patients. © 2011.

Shoubridge C.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Shoubridge C.,University of Adelaide | Walikonis R.S.,University of Connecticut | Gecz J.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Gecz J.,University of Adelaide
Small GTPases | Year: 2010

Mutations in IQSEC2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) family of small GTPases have recently been shown to cause non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (ID), characterised by substantial limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour. This discovery was revealed by a combination of large-scale resequencing of the X chromosome, and key functional assays that revealed a reduction, but not elimination, of IQSEC2 GEF activity for mutations affecting conserved amino acids in the IQ-like and Sec7 domains. Compromised GTP binding activity of IQSEC2 leading to reduced activation of selected Arf substrates (Arf1, Arf6) is expected to impact on cytoskeletal organization, dendritic spine morphology and synaptic organisation. This study highlights the need for further investigation of the IQSEC gene family and Arf GTPases in neuronal morphology and synaptic function, and suggests that the genes encoding the ArfGEFs IQSEC1 and IQSEC3 should be considered as candidates for screening in autosomal ID. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Huang L.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Huang L.,Central South University | Jolly L.A.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Willis-Owen S.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | And 20 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012

The discovery of mutations causing human disease has so far been biased toward protein-coding regions. Having excluded all annotated coding regions, we performed targeted massively parallel resequencing of the nonrepetitive genomic linkage interval at Xq28 of family MRX3. We identified in the binding site of transcription factor YY1 a regulatory mutation that leads to overexpression of the chromatin-associated transcriptional regulator HCFC1. When tested on embryonic murine neural stem cells and embryonic hippocampal neurons, HCFC1 overexpression led to a significant increase of the production of astrocytes and a considerable reduction in neurite growth. Two other nonsynonymous, potentially deleterious changes have been identified by X-exome sequencing in individuals with intellectual disability, implicating HCFC1 in normal brain function. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Bielicki J.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | McIntyre C.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | McIntyre C.,University of Adelaide | Anson D.S.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Anson D.S.,University of Adelaide
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2010

Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase β-glucuronidase. Symptoms include intellectual impairment, growth retardation, visual and hearing deficits and organ malfunction. The MPS VII mouse displays most of the symptoms variously associated with the MPS disorders, and has been widely used as a developmental paradigm for gene therapy.In this study, a lentiviral vector expressing murine β-glucuronidase was delivered to 6-week-old MPS VII affected mice, either by intravenous injection, or by ventricular infusion. Therapeutic outcomes were assessed 7. months after gene transfer.Intravenous vector delivery restored liver β-glucuronidase to normal levels. Consequently, most somatic pathology was corrected, and brain pathology was reduced. In mice that received ventricular vector most brain regions appeared biochemically and histologically normal. These animals showed significantly improved behavioural performance within the open-field test. An additional positive outcome of ventricular vector delivery was the significant reduction of lysosomal storage within the eye.The blood-brain barrier is not completely impervious to lysosomal enzymes, therefore, therapeutic enzyme can be distributed widely throughout the brain via the extensive cerebral vasculature. However, improvements in somatic gene delivery and expression are required for this to be completely successful. Ventricular vector delivery cleared lysosomal storage within the CNS making this a reasonable, albeit more challenging, therapeutic option for the MPS. The best therapeutic outcomes, with possible synergistic effects within the CNS, might be expected to occur when vector delivery to the brain is used in combination with somatic gene transfer. © 2010.

Poole A.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | Deane A.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | Deane A.,University of Adelaide | Summers M.,Royal Adelaide Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Introduction: In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether fasting plasma citrulline concentration predicts subsequent glucose absorption in critically ill patients. Methods: In a prospective observational study involving 15 healthy and 20 critically ill subjects, fasting plasma citrulline concentrations were assayed in blood samples immediately prior to the administration of a liquid test meal (1 kcal/ml; containing 3 g of 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG)) that was infused directly into the small intestine. Serum 3-OMG concentrations were measured over the following 4 hours, with the area under the 3-OMG concentration curve (AUC) calculated as an index of glucose absorption. Results: The groups were well matched in terms of age, sex and body mass index (BMI) (healthy subjects versus patients, mean (range) values: age, 47 (18 to 88) versus 49 (21 to 77) years; sex ratio, 60% versus 80% male; BMI, 25.2 (18.8 to 30.0) versus 25.5 (19.4 to 32.2) kg/m2). Compared to the healthy subjects, patients who were critically ill had reduced fasting citrulline concentration (26.5 (13.9 to 43.0) versus 15.2 (5.7 to 28.6) μmol/L; P<0.01) and glucose absorption (3-OMG AUC, 79.7 (28.6 to 117.8) versus 61.0 (4.5 to 97.1) mmol/L/240 min; P=0.05). There was no relationship between fasting citrulline concentration and subsequent glucose absorption (r=0.28; P=0.12). Conclusions: Whereas both plasma citrulline concentrations and glucose absorption were reduced in critical illness, fasting plasma citrulline concentrations were not predictive of subsequent glucose absorption. These data suggest that fasting citrulline concentration does not appear to be a marker of small intestinal absorptive function in patients who are critically ill. © 2015 applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Shoubridge C.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Shoubridge C.,University of Adelaide | Tarpey P.S.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Abidi F.,Jc Self Research Institute | And 19 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2010

The first family identified as having a nonsyndromic intellectual disability was mapped in 1988. Here we show that a mutation of IQSEC2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of small GTPases, caused this disorder. In addition to MRX1, IQSEC2 mutations were identified in three other families with X-linked intellectual disability. This discovery was made possible by systematic and unbiased X chromosome exome resequencing. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Corbett M.A.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Bahlo M.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Jolly L.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Afawi Z.,Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center | And 17 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010

We characterized an autosomal-recessive syndrome of focal epilepsy, dysarthria, and mild to moderate intellectual disability in a consanguineous Arab-Israeli family associated with subtle cortical thickening. We used multipoint linkage analysis to map the causative mutation to a 3.2 Mb interval within 16p13.3 with a LOD score of 3.86. The linked interval contained 160 genes, many of which were considered to be plausible candidates to harbor the disease-causing mutation. To interrogate the interval in an efficient and unbiased manner, we used targeted sequence enrichment and massively parallel sequencing. By prioritizing unique variants that affected protein translation, a pathogenic mutation was identified in TBC1D24 (p.F251L), a gene of unknown function. It is a member of a large gene family encoding TBC domain proteins with predicted function as Rab GTPase activators. We show that TBC1D24 is expressed early in mouse brain and that TBC1D24 protein is a potent modulator of primary axonal arborization and specification in neuronal cells, consistent with the phenotypic abnormality described. © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Corbett M.A.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Schwake M.,University of Kiel | Bahlo M.,Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research | Bahlo M.,University of Melbourne | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2011

The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of predominantly recessive disorders that present with action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, and progressive neurological decline. Many PMEs have similar clinical presentations yet are genetically heterogeneous, making accurate diagnosis difficult. A locus for PME was mapped in a consanguineous family with a single affected individual to chromosome 17q21. An identical-by-descent, homozygous mutation in GOSR2 (c.430G>T, p.Gly144Trp), a Golgi vesicle transport gene, was identified in this patient and in four apparently unrelated individuals. A comparison of the phenotypes in these patients defined a clinically distinct PME syndrome characterized by early-onset ataxia, action myoclonus by age 6, scoliosis, and mildly elevated serum creatine kinase. This p.Gly144Trp mutation is equivalent to a loss of function and results in failure of GOSR2 protein to localize to the cis-Golgi. © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Lau C.,Genetics and Molecular Pathology | Suthers G.,Womens and Childrens Hospital
Australian Prescriber | Year: 2011

Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Genetic testing is available in specialized laboratories, but is expensive and presents a significant technical and interpretative challenge. Identification of a causative mutation carries lifelong health and psychosocial implications for the woman and her relatives. It also influences surveillance and treatment options. Testing should therefore only be considered with professional genetic counselling by specialists in familial cancer clinics.

PubMed | Genetics and Molecular Pathology and University of Cambridge
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a lipogenic enzyme important for the regulation of membrane lipid homeostasis; dysregulation likely contributes to obesity associated metabolic disturbances. SCD1 catalyses the 9 desaturation of 12-19 carbon saturated fatty acids to monounsaturated fatty acids. To understand its influence in cellular lipid composition we investigated the effect of genetic ablation of SCD1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes on membrane microdomain lipid composition at the species-specific level. Using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 70 species of ceramide, mono-, di- and trihexosylceramide, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, phosphatidylinositol and cholesterol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which a 90% reduction in scd1 mRNA expression was achieved with siRNA. Cholesterol content was unchanged although decreases in other lipids resulted in cholesterol accounting for a higher proportion of lipid in the membranes. This was associated with decreased membrane lateral diffusion. An increased ratio of 24:0 to 24:1 in ceramide, mono- and dihexosylceramide, and sphingomyelin likely also contributed to this decrease in lateral diffusion. Of particular interest, we observed a decrease in phospholipids containing arachidonic acid. Given the high degree of structural flexibility of this acyl chain this will influence membrane lateral diffusion, and is likely responsible for the transcriptional activation of Lands cycle enzymes lpcat3 and mboat7. Of relevance these profound changes in the lipidome were not accompanied by dramatic changes in gene expression in mature differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that adaptive homeostatic mechanisms to ensure partial maintenance of the biophysical properties of membranes likely occur at a post-transcriptional level.

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