Genetica i Millora Animal

Lleida, Spain

Genetica i Millora Animal

Lleida, Spain
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Estelle J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Estelle J.,Agro ParisTech | Estelle J.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Alves E.,INIA | Pena R.N.,Genetica i Millora Animal
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: In pigs, adipose tissue is one of the principal organs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. It is particularly involved in the overall fatty acid synthesis with consequences in other lipid-target organs such as muscles and the liver. With this in mind, we have used massive, parallel high-throughput sequencing technologies to characterize the porcine adipose tissue transcriptome architecture in six Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition (three per group). Results: High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to generate a whole characterization of adipose tissue (backfat) transcriptome. A total of 4,130 putative unannotated protein-coding sequences were identified in the 20% of reads which mapped in intergenic regions. Furthermore, 36% of the unmapped reads were represented by interspersed repeats, SINEs being the most abundant elements. Differential expression analyses identified 396 candidate genes among divergent animals for intramuscular fatty acid composition. Sixty-two percent of these genes (247/396) presented higher expression in the group of pigs with higher content of intramuscular SFA and MUFA, while the remaining 149 showed higher expression in the group with higher content of PUFA. Pathway analysis related these genes to biological functions and canonical pathways controlling lipid and fatty acid metabolisms. In concordance with the phenotypic classification of animals, the major metabolic pathway differentially modulated between groups was de novo lipogenesis, the group with more PUFA being the one that showed lower expression of lipogenic genes. Conclusions: These results will help in the identification of genetic variants at loci that affect fatty acid composition traits. The implications of these results range from the improvement of porcine meat quality traits to the application of the pig as an animal model of human metabolic diseases. © 2013 Corominas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ibanez-Escriche N.,Genetica i Millora Animal | Noguera J.L.,Genetica i Millora Animal | Varona L.,University of Zaragoza
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

We developed and implemented change-point recursive models and compared them with a linear recursive model and a standard mixed model (SMM), in the scope of the relationship between litter size (LS) and number of stillborns (NSB) in pigs. The proposed approach allows us to estimate the point of change in multiple-segment modeling of a nonlinear relationship between phenotypes. We applied the procedure to a data set provided by a commercial Large White selection nucleus. The data file consisted of LS and NSB records of 4,462 parities. The results of the analysis clearly identified the location of the change points between different structural regression coefficients. The magnitude of these coefficients increased with LS, indicating an increasing incidence of LS on the NSB ratio. However, posterior distributions of correlations were similar across subpopulations (defined by the change points on LS), except for those between residuals. The heritability estimates of NSB did not present differences between recursive models. Nevertheless, these heritabilities were greater than those obtained for SMM (0.05) with a posterior probability of 85%. These results suggest a nonlinear relationship between LS and NSB, which supports the adequacy of a change-point recursive model for its analysis. Furthermore, the results from model comparisons support the use of recursive models. However, the adequacy of the different recursive models depended on the criteria used: the linear recursive model was preferred on account of its smallest deviance value, whereas nonlinear recursive models provided a better fit and predictive ability based on the cross-validation approach. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Fernandez A.I.,INIA | Perez-Montarelo D.,INIA | Barragan C.,INIA | Ramayo-Caldas Y.,Facultat de Veterinaria | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: The traditional strategy to map QTL is to use linkage analysis employing a limited number of markers. These analyses report wide QTL confidence intervals, making very difficult to identify the gene and polymorphisms underlying the QTL effects. The arrival of genome-wide panels of SNPs makes available thousands of markers increasing the information content and therefore the likelihood of detecting and fine mapping QTL regions. The aims of the current study are to confirm previous QTL regions for growth and body composition traits in different generations of an Iberian x Landrace intercross (IBMAP) and especially identify new ones with narrow confidence intervals by employing the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip in linkage analyses.Results: Three generations (F3, Backcross 1 and Backcross 2) of the IBMAP and their related animals were genotyped with PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. A total of 8,417 SNPs equidistantly distributed across autosomes were selected after filtering by quality, position and frequency to perform the QTL scan. The joint and separate analyses of the different IBMAP generations allowed confirming QTL regions previously identified in chromosomes 4 and 6 as well as new ones mainly for backfat thickness in chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 14 and 17 and shoulder weight in chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 13; and many other to the chromosome-wide signification level. In addition, most of the detected QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals, making easier the selection of positional candidate genes.Conclusions: The use of higher density of markers has allowed to confirm results obtained in previous QTL scans carried out with microsatellites. Moreover several new QTL regions have been now identified in regions probably not covered by markers in previous scans, most of these QTLs displayed narrow confidence intervals. Finally, prominent putative biological and positional candidate genes underlying those QTL effects are listed based on recent porcine genome annotation. © 2012 Fernandez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Ramayo-Caldas Y.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Castello A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Pena R.N.,Genetica i Millora Animal | Pena R.N.,University of Lleida | And 6 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Recent studies in pigs have detected copy number variants (CNVs) using the Comparative Genomic Hybridization technique in arrays designed to cover specific porcine chromosomes. The goal of this study was to identify CNV regions (CNVRs) in swine species based on whole genome SNP genotyping chips.Results: We used predictions from three different programs (cnvPartition, PennCNV and GADA) to analyze data from the Porcine SNP60 BeadChip. A total of 49 CNVRs were identified in 55 animals from an Iberian x Landrace cross (IBMAP) according to three criteria: detected in at least two animals, contained three or more consecutive SNPs and recalled by at least two programs. Mendelian inheritance of CNVRs was confirmed in animals belonging to several generations of the IBMAP cross. Subsequently, a segregation analysis of these CNVRs was performed in 372 additional animals from the IBMAP cross and its distribution was studied in 133 unrelated pig samples from different geographical origins. Five out of seven analyzed CNVRs were validated by real time quantitative PCR, some of which coincide with well known examples of CNVs conserved across mammalian species.Conclusions: Our results illustrate the usefulness of Porcine SNP60 BeadChip to detect CNVRs and show that structural variants can not be neglected when studying the genetic variability in this species. © 2010 Ramayo-Caldas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mach N.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Mach N.,Agro ParisTech | Mach N.,French Atomic Energy Commission | Estelle J.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | And 7 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: New advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed for the massive analysis of genomic data, providing new opportunities for the characterization of the transcriptome architectures. Recent studies in pigs have employed RNA-Seq to explore the transcriptome of different tissues in a reduced number of animals. The main goal of this study was the identification of differentially-expressed genes in the liver of Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition using RNA-Seq.Results: The liver transcriptomes of two female groups (H and L) with phenotypically extreme intramuscular fatty acid composition were sequenced using RNA-Seq. A total of 146 and 180 unannotated protein-coding genes were identified in intergenic regions for the L and H groups, respectively. In addition, a range of 5.8 to 7.3% of repetitive elements was found, with SINEs being the most abundant elements. The expression in liver of 186 (L) and 270 (H) lncRNAs was also detected. The higher reproducibility of the RNA-Seq data was validated by RT-qPCR and porcine expression microarrays, therefore showing a strong correlation between RT-qPCR and RNA-Seq data (ranking from 0.79 to 0.96), as well as between microarrays and RNA-Seq (r=0.72). A differential expression analysis between H and L animals identified 55 genes differentially-expressed between groups. Pathways analysis revealed that these genes belong to biological functions, canonical pathways and three gene networks related to lipid and fatty acid metabolism. In concordance with the phenotypic classification, the pathways analysis inferred that linolenic and arachidonic acids metabolism was altered between extreme individuals. In addition, a connection was observed among the top three networks, hence suggesting that these genes are interconnected and play an important role in lipid and fatty acid metabolism.Conclusions: In the present study RNA-Seq was used as a tool to explore the liver transcriptome of pigs with extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition. The differential gene expression analysis showed potential gene networks which affect lipid and fatty acid metabolism. These results may help in the design of selection strategies to improve the sensorial and nutritional quality of pork meat. © 2012 Ramayo-Caldas et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Munoz M.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Alves E.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigaciones Agrarias | Corominas J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Folch J.M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2012

Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of back fat (BF) and intramuscular fat (IMF). In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of IMF in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60-cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait). This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of BF, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase α gene (ACACA). Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for palmitic content. © 2012 Muñoz, Alves, Corominas, Folch, Casellas, Noguera, Silió and Fernández.

Ramirez O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Ramirez O.,University Pompeu Fabra | Quintanilla R.,Genetica i Millora Animal | Varona L.,Genetica i Millora Animal | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2014

Variation at the porcine DECR1 and ME1 genes has been associated with meat quality traits and backfat thickness in Landrace pigs, respectively. However, it has not been investigated yet whether DECR1 and ME1 genotypes influence lipid composition. With this aim, we have genotyped two missense DECR1 substitutions (c.160G>C and c.437G>C) and one silent ME1 (c.576C>T) polymorphism in 361 Duroc barrows distributed in five half-sib families and phenotyped for serum lipid concentrations and intramuscular fat content and composition traits. At the whole-population level, relevant associations, that is, with a posterior probability of the allele substitution effect to be over or below zero (PPN0) > 0.90, were observed between DECR1 genotype and serum cholesterol (CHOL) (PPN0 = 0.932) and LDL concentrations (PPN0 = 0.945) at 190 days, as well as between ME1 genotype and longissimus dorsi saturated fatty acid content (PPN0 = 0.924). At the within-family level, we found relevant associations between DECR1 and ME1 genotypes and diverse lipid composition traits, but most of them were family-specific. Discrepancies in allele substitution effects estimated in half-sib families might be produced by many factors such as number of individuals, marker allele frequencies and informativeness in each family, unaccounted random genetic and environmental effects, epistasis and family-specific differences in the linkage phase or amount of linkage disequilibrium between causal and marker mutations. This lack of consistency across families, combined with the fact that the ME1 mutation is synonymous and that the two DECR1 polymorphisms are conservative, suggests that the associations found are not causative. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Davoli R.,University of Bologna | Braglia S.,University of Bologna | Russo V.,University of Bologna | Varona L.,Genetica i Millora Animal | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2011

In livestock, skeletal muscle is a tissue of major economic importance for meat production and muscle mass is largely determined during the prenatal period by the number and the size of muscle fibres. The understanding of gene expression changes during prenatal pig muscle development is still limited. In this study, genes identified as differentially expressed in a previous microarray research and chosen for the function of the coded protein as putative candidate involved in myogenesis were considered to analyse their expression profile during foetal growth of Duroc and Pietrain pigs. The eleven genes were considered by real-time PCR for a time-course evaluation of the transcription level at six stages of prenatal longissimus dorsi development. The results suggest that the most relevant variations in mRNA levels of the analysed genes seem to follow temporal waves of gene expression. Significant changes of transcription were observed at 21-35 and 63-91 days, the two main phases of skeletal muscle development. During the early phases of Pietrain embryos' development, 10 of the 11 genes showed an induction. In Duroc embryos, a second phase of gene up-regulation can be identified in the phase 63-77 days. These results provide new data on developmental changes of expression profile of 11 genes involved in different functional pathways related to prenatal myogenic processes in Duroc and Pietrain pigs. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Ibanez-Escriche N.,Genetica i Millora Animal | Gonzalez-Recio O.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The aim of this work was to review the main challenges and pitfalls of the implementation of genomic selection in the breeding programs of different livestock species. Genomic selection is now one of the main challenges in animal breeding and genetics. Its application could considerably increase the genetic gain in traits of interest. However, the success of its practical implementation depends on the selection scheme characteristics, and these must be studied for each particular case. In dairy cattle, especially in Holsteins, genomic selection is a reality. However, in other livestock species (beef cattle, small ruminants, monogastrics and fish) genomic selection has mainly been used experimentally. The main limitation for its implementation in the mentioned livestock species is the high genotyping costs compared to the low selection value of the candidate. Nevertheless, nowadays the possibility of using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips of low density to make genomic selection applications economically feasible is under study. Economic studies may optimize the benefits of genomic selection (GS) to include new traits in the breeding goals. It is evident that genomic selection offers great potential; however, a suitable genotyping strategy and recording system for each case is needed in order to properly exploit it.

Balcells I.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Castello A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Mercade A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Noguera J.L.,Genetica i Millora Animal | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2011

Background: Reproductive traits, such as prolificacy, are of great interest to the pig industry. Better understanding of their genetic architecture should help to increase the efficiency of pig productivity through the implementation of marker assisted selection (MAS) programmes.Results: The Mucin 4 (MUC4) gene has been evaluated as a candidate gene for a prolificacy QTL described in an Iberian × Meishan (Ib × Me) F2intercross. For association analyses, two previously described SNPs (DQ124298:g.243A>G and DQ124298:g.344A>G) were genotyped in 347 pigs from the Ib × Me population. QTL for the number of piglets born alive (NBA) and for the total number of piglets born (TNB) were confirmed on SSC13 at positions 44 cM and 51 cM, respectively. The MUC4 gene was successfully located within the confidence intervals of both QTL. Only DQ124298:g.344A>G MUC4 polymorphism was significantly associated with both NBA and TNB (P-value < 0.05) with favourable effects coming from the Meishan origin. MUC4 expression level was determined in F2sows displaying extreme phenotypes for the number of embryos (NE) at 30-32 days of gestation. Differences in the uterine expression of MUC4 were found between high (NE ≥ 13) and low (NE ≤ 11) prolificacy sows. Overall, MUC4 expression in high prolificacy sows was almost two-fold increased compared with low prolificacy sows.Conclusions: Our data suggest that MUC4 could play an important role in the establishment of an optimal uterine environment that would increase embryonic survival during pig gestation. © 2011 Balcells et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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