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This paper examines the relative importance of productive and adaptive traits in beef breeding systems based on Bos taurus and tropically adapted breeds across temperate and (sub)tropical environments. In the (sub)tropics, differences that exist between breeds in temperate environments are masked by the effects of environmental stressors. Hence in tropical environments, breeds are best categorised into breed types to compare their performance across environments. Because of the presence of environmental stressors, there are more sources of genetic variation in tropical breeding programmes. It is therefore necessary to examine the genetic basis of productive and adaptive traits for breeding programmes in those environments. This paper reviews the heritabilities and genetic relationships between economically important productive and adaptive traits relevant to (sub)tropical breeding programmes. It is concluded that it is possible to simultaneously genetically improve productive and adaptive traits in tropically adapted breeds of beef cattle grazed in tropical environments without serious detrimental consequences for either adaptation or production. However, breed-specific parameters are required for genetic evaluations. The paper also reviews the magnitude of genotype × environment (G × E) interactions impacting on production and adaptation of cattle, where 'genotype' is defined as breed (within a crossbreeding system), sire within breed (in a within-breed selection programme) or associations between economically important traits and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs-within a marker-assisted selection programme). It is concluded that re-ranking of breeds across environments is best managed by the use of the breed type(s) best suited to the particular production environment. Re-ranking of sires across environments is apparent in poorly adapted breed types across extreme tropical and temperate environments or where breeding animals are selected in a temperate environment for use in the (sub)tropics. However, G × E interactions are unlikely to be of major importance in tropically adapted beef cattle grazed in either temperate or (sub)tropical environments, although sex × environment interactions may provide new opportunities for differentially selecting to simultaneously improve steer performance in benign environments and female performance in harsher environments. Early evidence suggests that re-ranking of SNPs occurs across temperate and tropical environments, although their magnitude is still to be confirmed in well-designed experiments. The major limitation to genetic improvement of beef cattle over the next decade is likely to be a deficiency of large numbers of accurately recorded phenotypes for most productive and adaptive traits and, in particular, for difficult-to-measure adaptive traits such as resistance to disease and environmental stressors. © 2012 The Animal Consortium.


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2016-05-20

Methods of treating an individual exhibiting a medical condition are disclosed. The methods involve determining a score of an individual based on the individuals genotypic information, comparing the score to at least one threshold value, wherein the result of the comparison is indicative of a beneficial response to a treatment, and providing a suitable treatment to the individual.


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2016-05-31

The present invention relates to methods for identifying variations that occur in the human genome and relating these variations to the genetic basis of disease and drug response. In particular, the present invention relates to identifying individual SNPs, determining SNP haplotype blocks and patterns, and, further, using the SNP haplotype blocks and patterns to dissect the genetic bases of disease and drug response. The methods of the present invention are useful in whole genome analysis.


The present invention relates to the identification of fetal specific nucleic acids and fetal cell markers in maternal plasma or serum. In particular, the present invention relates to methods which rely on the analysis of polymorphic alleles of a population to determine an allele which is possessed by the fetus but absent from the mother. Fetal specific alleles identified using the methods of the invention can be used to quantify fetal DNA from maternal plasma or serum. In addition, antigens encoded by alleles identified using the methods of the invention can be targeted in methods of isolating or detecting fetal cells.


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2013-01-24

Methods of treating an individual exhibiting a medical condition are disclosed. The methods involve determining a score of an individual based on the individuals genotypic information, comparing the score to at least one threshold value, wherein the result of the comparison is indicative of a beneficial response to a treatment, and providing a suitable treatment to the individual.


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2012-03-06

The present invention relates to methods of enriching fetal cells from a pregnant female. The present invention relates to removing, from a sample, cells that comprise at least one MHC molecule. The present invention also relates to methods that rely on using telomerase, mRNA encoding components thereof, as well as telomere length, as markers for fetal cells. Enriched fetal cells can be used in a variety of procedures including, detection of a trait of interest such as a disease trait, or a genetic predisposition thereto, gender typing and parentage testing.


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2014-09-03

Methods of determining an individuals risk of developing or exhibiting a multifactorial medical condition are disclosed. The methods involve determining a risk score of an individual based on the individuals genotypic information, comparing the score to at least one threshold value, wherein the result of the comparison is indicative of the individuals risk of developing or exhibiting the multifactorial / polygenic condition. The risk score is determined using weighted allele scores wherein the magnitude of the effect on risk of the associated alleles is taken into account.


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2013-10-29

A sampling device adapted for transcervical sampling of biological materials from a pregnant patient comprising:


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2013-09-18

Methods of treating an individual exhibiting a medical condition are disclosed. The methods involve determining a score of an individual based on the individuals genotypic information, comparing the score to at least one threshold value, wherein the result of the comparison is indicative of a beneficial response to a treatment, and providing a suitable treatment to the individual.


Patent
Genetic Technologies | Date: 2016-04-19

The present disclosure relates to methods and systems for assessing the risk of a human female subject for developing breast cancer. In particular, the present disclosure relates to combining clinical risk assessment and genetic risk assessment to improve risk analysis.

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