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Trieste, Italy

Sandrin-Garcia P.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Brandao L.A.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Coelho A.V.C.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Guimaraes R.L.,Federal University of Pernambuco | And 5 more authors.
Human Immunology

Susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been associated with immunologic, environmental, and genetic factors. To uncover a possible association between MBL2 gene polymorphisms and SLE, we analyzed functional polymorphisms in the promoter and first exon of the MBL2 gene in 134 Brazilian SLE patients and 101 healthy controls. Genotype and allele frequencies of MBL2 A/O polymorphism were significantly different between patients and controls, and the O allele was associated with an increased risk of SLE. An association between low mannose binding lectin (MBL) producer combined genotypes and increased risk for SLE was also reported. Furthermore, when stratifying SLE patients according to clinical and laboratory data, an association between the A/O genotype and nephritic disorders and between the X/Y genotype and antiphospholipid syndrome was evident. Combined genotypes responsible for low MBL production were more frequently observed in SLE patients with nephritis. Our results indicate MBL2 polymorphisms as possible risk factors for SLE development and disease-related clinical manifestations. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Source

Malikova J.,Charles University | Malikova J.,University of Bern | Camats N.,University of Bern | Fernandez-Cancio M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 8 more authors.

Context: Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective: To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients: 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods: SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results: Two novel NR5A1 /SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions: Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. © 2014 Malikova et al. Source

Celerino da Silva R.,Federal University of Pernambuco | Segat L.,Genetic Service | Crovella S.,Federal University of Pernambuco
Human Immunology

The innate immune system acts in the first line of host defense against pathogens. One of the mechanisms used involves the early recognition and uptake of microbes by host professional phagocytes, through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These PRRs bind to conserved microbial ligands expressed by pathogens and initiate both innate and adaptative immune responses. Some PRRs located on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) and other cells seem to play an important role in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. Dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin, CD209 (DC-SIGN) and its homolog, DC-SIGN-related (DC-SIGNR or L-SIGN) receptors are PPRs able to bind the HIV-1 gp120 envelope protein and, because alterations in their expression patterns also occur, they might play a role in both horizontal and vertical transmission as well as in disseminating the virus within the host. This review aims to explore the involvement of the DC-SIGN and L-SIGN receptors in HIV-1 transmission from mother to child. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Source

Vatta S.,Laboratory of Immuno pathology | Fabris A.,Genetic Service | Segat L.,Genetic Service | Not T.,Laboratory of Immuno pathology | And 2 more authors.
Human Immunology

We genotyped celiac disease (CD)-associated haplotypes DQ2.5, DQ8, DQ2.2, and DQ7 in 1005 CD patients from North Eastern Italy using a Tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) approach and real time PCR platform, checking the accuracy and reliability of the method and comparing it to traditional PCR-SSP. Only 14 of 2010 chromosomes analyzed (0.7%) showed discrepancies between the Tag-SNPs real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the PCR-single-strand polymorphism (SSP) technique, indicating a high sensitivity and specificity (ranging from 0.987 to 1 and from 0.998 to 0.999, respectively) for tagging with respect to corresponding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles identified by PCR-SSP. Moreover, the overall cost of the Tag-SNPs HLA typing method was low (3 to 4 €/sample instead of 35 to 70 €/sample with commercial kits), making it suitable for mass screenings. Hence, we believe that the Tag-SNPs HLA typing could be used to complement or replace classic HLA typing in at high-risk groups, for research purposes and eventually in population screening programs. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Source

Canueto J.,Molecular Medicine Unit | Canueto J.,University of Salamanca | Ciria S.,Molecular Medicine Unit | Pi-Castan G.,Hospital de la Ribera | And 18 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology

Background Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome (CDPX2, OMIM 302960) is an inherited X-linked dominant variant of chondrodysplasia punctata which primarily affects the skin, bones and eyes. CDPX2 results from mutations in EBP (emopamil binding protein), and presents with increased levels of sterol precursors 8(9)-cholestenol and 8-dehydrocholesterol. Objectives To expand the understanding of CDPX2, clinically, biochemically and genetically. Methods We present one of the largest series reported to date, including 13 female patients belonging to nine Spanish families. Patients were studied biochemically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, genetically using polymerase chain reaction and in their methylation status using the HUMARA assay. Results In our cases, there was a clear relationship between abnormal sterol profile and the EBP gene mutation. We describe three novel mutations in the EBP gene. EBP mutations were inherited in three out of nine families and were sporadic in the remaining cases. Conclusions No clear genotype-phenotype correlation was found. Patients' biochemical profiles did not reveal a relationship between sterol profiles and severity of disease. A skewed X-chromosome inactivation may explain the clinical phenotype in CDPX2 in some familial cases. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

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