Riley L.E.,Dorena Genetic Resource Center |
Steinfeld D.E.,107 5th Street |
Winn L.A.,Dorena Genetic Resource Center |
Lucas S.L.,Forest Health Protection
Natural Areas Journal | Year: 2015
Revegetating highly disturbed sites in the western United States with native plants is challenging because of poor soils, harsh climates, and the lack of native plant materials suitable for many restoration sites. While there are a variety of products and equipment available to the revegetation specialist, integrating these tools into project planning and construction is often the weak link to successful revegetation. Over a decade ago, the USDA Forest Service and USDOT Federal Highway Administration formed a partnership to address the challenge of restoring native plants on roadsides. The Forest Service has used this partnership as a model for working with other agencies on revegetating abandoned mines, degraded rangelands, high elevation sites, and constructed wetlands. Beginning in the early phase of a project, engineers, environmental specialists, and revegetation specialists work together to craft a revegetation plan at the same time construction plans are being developed. As the project moves into the construction phase, the revegetation specialist, construction engineer, and contractors work together to ensure that the revegetation plan is properly implemented. When the project is completed, the revegetation specialist monitors the results of the revegetation effort and reports the findings. This collaborative effort increases the understanding of available restoration tools, including: (1) when to use them; (2) their effectiveness and costs; and (3) how they are realistically implemented on construction projects. Collaboration has been a key factor in increasing success and advancing the development of new methods and strategies for restoring native plants to highly disturbed sites.
Liu J.-J.,Natural Resources Canada |
Sniezko R.A.,Dorena Genetic Resource Center |
Ekramoddoullah A.K.M.,Natural Resources Canada
Phytopathology | Year: 2011
Multiple families of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are believed to contribute to plant quantitative resistance to various pathogens. Along with other host PR proteins, PR3 chitinase is one protein component participating in genetic resistance of western white pine (Pinus monticola) to the white pine blister rust (WPBR) pathogen (Cronartium ribicola). In the present study, we characterized a novel P. monticola class IV chitinase gene (PmCh4B) and further analyzed its nucleotide variations in the open-pollinated seed families of diverse geographical distribution and variable levels of quantitative resistance to C. ribicola infection. PmCh4B showed high haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.94) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00965), similar to those of other conifer genes related to environmental stresses. A low level of intragenic linkage disequilibrium (LD) (but most of the levels with statistical significance) was found within a distance of ≈800 bp. Based on PmCh4B haplotype frequency, moderate to high levels of population structure were observed among P. monticola seed families currently used in breeding programs for WPBR resistance (average F ST = 0.163, P < 0.001). Association analysis revealed that allelic variants and multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms of PmCh4B were significantly associated with quantitative levels of P. monticola resistance against C. ribicola. This work represents the first association study for quantitative resistance in western white pine pathosystem and provides a potential for marker-assisted selection in white pine breeding. © 2011 The American Phytopathological Society.