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Budapest, Hungary

Biri B.,Debrecen University | Nagy L.,Debrecen University | Kuki A.,Debrecen University | Toke E.R.,Genetic Immunity Kft | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry

Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline), a synthetic polymer was analysed by mass spectrometry using different ion sources. Two distributions could be identified in the mass spectra which related to two different polymer series (one with hydrogen and hydroxyl end-groups and the other with methyl and hydroxyl end-groups). The fragmentation behaviour of the protonated oligomers was studied in a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MS) with electrospray, atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and direct analysis in real time soft ionization techniques. Three product ion series were identified in the MS/MS spectra independently of the ion source used. Based on the results, a mechanism was proposed for the dissociation by means of the accurate mass of the product ions, pseudo MS3 experiments and the energy dependence of the product ion intensity, i.e. breakdown curves. The survival yield method was used to highlight the correlation between the size of the oligomers and the laboratory frame collision energy. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Lisziewicz J.,Genetic Immunity Kft | Lisziewicz J.,Genetic Immunity LLC | Toke E.R.,Genetic Immunity Kft
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) successfully suppresses HIV replication. However, daily and lifelong treatment is necessary to manage patient illness because cART neither eradicates infected cells from reservoirs nor reconstitutes HIV-specific immunity that could kill infected cells. Toward the cure of HIV, different nanomedicine classes have been developed with the following disease-modifying properties: to eradicate the virus by activation of latently infected CD4+ T-cells and reservoirs flushing; to kill the infected cells in the reservoirs by boosting of HIV-specific T cells; and to prevent infection by the use of microbicides with improved epithelial penetration and drug half-life. Preclinical and clinical trials consistently demonstrated that DermaVir, the most advanced nanomedicine, induces long-lasting memory T-cell responses and reduces viral load in comparison with placebo. DermaVir and the nanomedicine pipelines have the potential to improve the health of HIV-infected people at lower costs, to decrease antiretroviral drug exposure, and to contribute to the cure of HIV/AIDS. From the Clinical Editor: Despite the leaps and bounds in the development of antiretroviral therapy, HIV remains a significant public health challenge. In this review, applications of nanomedicine- based technologies are discussed in the context of HIV treatment, including virus elimination by activation of latently infected CD4+ T-cells; infected cell elimination in the reservoirs by boosting HIV-specific T cells, and by preventing infection by the use of microbicides with improved epithelial penetration and drug half-life. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.. Source

Gudmundsdotter L.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | Wahren B.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | Haller B.K.,Karolinska Institutet | Boberg A.,Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control | And 10 more authors.

Immunotherapy in patients with HIV-1 infection aims to restore and broaden immunological competence, reduce viral load and thereby permit longer periods without combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). Twelve HIV-1-infected patients on cART were immunized on the skin with DNA plasmids containing genes of several HIV-1 subtypes with or without the addition of hydroxyurea (HU), or with placebo. The mean net gain of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were higher and broader in the HIV DNA vaccine groups compared to non-vaccinated individuals (p< 0.05). The vaccine-induced immune responses per se had no direct effect on viral replication. In all patients combined, including placebo, the viral set point after a final structured therapy interruption (STI) was lower than prior to initiation of cART (p= 0.003). Nadir CD4 levels appeared to strongly influence the post-STI viral titers. After the sixth immunization or placebo, patients could stay off cART for a median time of 15 months. The study shows that HIV DNA immunization induces broader and higher magnitudes of HIV-specific immune responses compared to structured therapy interruptions alone. Although compromised by small numbers of patients, the study also demonstrates that well-monitored STI may safely function as an immunological read out of HIV vaccine efficacy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lorincz O.,Genetic Immunity Kft | Toke E.R.,Genetic Immunity Kft | Somogyi E.,Genetic Immunity Kft | Horkay F.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 5 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Here we characterize the structure, stability and intracellular mode of action of DermaVir nanomedicine that is under clinical development for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. This nanomedicine comprises pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles (NPs) having the structure and function resembling spherical viruses that naturally evolved to deliver nucleic acids to the cells. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated spherical 100 - 200 nm NPs with a smooth polymer surface protecting the pDNA in the core. Optical absorption determined both the NP structural stability and biological activity relevant to their ability to escape from the endosome and release the pDNA at the nucleus. Salt, pH and temperature influence nanomedicine shelf-life and intracellular stability. This approach facilitates the development of diverse polyplex nanomedicines where the delivered pDNA-expressed antigens induce immune responses to kill infected cells. From the Clinical Editor: The authors investigated DermaVir nanomedicine comprised of pathogen-like pDNA/PEIm nanoparticles with structure and function resembling spherical viruses. DermaVir delivery of pDNA expresses antigens that induce immune responses to kill HIV infected cells. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Kolonics A.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences | Kolonics A.,R and D Ultrafast Lasers Ltd | Csiszovszki Z.,Genetic Immunity Kft | Csiszovszki Z.,EMMUNITY Inc. | And 8 more authors.
Experimental Dermatology

Epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) function as professional antigen-presenting cells of the skin. We investigated the LC-targeting properties of a special mannose-moiety-coated pathogen-like synthetic nanomedicine DermaVir (DV), which is capable to express antigens to induce immune responses and kill HIV-infected cells. Our aim was to use multiphoton laser microscopy (MLM) in vivo in order to visualize the uptake of Alexa-labelled DV (AF546-DV) by LCs. Knock-in mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the langerin gene (CD207) were used to visualize LCs. After 1 h, AF546-DV penetrated the epidermis and entered the eGFP-LCs. The AF546-DV signal was equally distributed inside the LCs. After 9 h, we observed AF546-DV signal accumulation that occurred mainly at the cell body. We demonstrated in live animals that LCs picked up and accumulated the nanoparticles in the cell body. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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