Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute

Baghdad, Iraq

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute

Baghdad, Iraq
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AlFaisal A.H.M.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | AL-Ramahi I.J.K.,Al Razi Center for Medical Diagnostic kits Production | Abdul-Hassan I.A.R.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2014

Micronucleus (MN) assay has been extensively used in detection of DNA damage, instability in cancer, and genetic disorders. In the current study, MN, binucleated cells, and nuclear division index (NDI) were investigated in Iraqi patients with thyroid disorders. The results indicated significantly (p < 0.05) increased binucleated cells with micronucleus (BNMN) frequencies in thyroid cancer group (37.58 ± 3.07) versus other thyroid disorder groups (6.60 ± 1.29, 14.90 ± 1.69, 15.56 ± 1.76). On the other hand, the frequency of micronucleus per 1,000 and the NDI were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in hypothyroidism (MN 1.55 ± 0.36) (NDI 0.009 ± 0.001) versus other thyroid disorder groups (MN: 6.05 ± 0.97, 6.09 ± 0.53, 5.34 ± 0.56) (NDI: 0.049 ± 0.003, 0.032 ± 0.002, 0.025 ± 0.002), with no difference versus healthy group (0.0 ± 0.0). The number of BNMN and MN are parallel to the severity of thyroid disorders which were 6.60 ± 1.29, 14.90 ± 1.69, 15.56 ± 1.76, and 37.58 ± 3.07 for hypothyroidism, thyroid toxic goiter, thyroid nontoxic goiter, and thyroid cancer, respectively. The number of BNMN and MN are parallel to the severity of thyroid disorders which were 6.60 ± 1.29, 14.90 ± 1.69, 15.56 ± 1.76, and 37.58 ± 3.07 for hypothyroidism, thyroid toxic goiter, thyroid nontoxic goiter, and thyroid cancer, respectively. The results also indicate that there were no significant differences among age and sex groups as related with BNMN formation within each thyroid disorder groups and healthy control group. © 2012 The Author(s).


EL-Kenawy A.E.L.-M.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute
International Journal of Cancer Research and Prevention | Year: 2013

HCC is unique among cancers occurring mostly in patients with chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. It continues to be the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide and due to its high mortality the third most common cause of cancer mortality, causing 9.2% of all cancer deaths. HCC has become the second most prevalent cancer among men in Egypt. Of all the HCC cases, it is estimated that 66% are attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 42% are attributable to Hepatitis C virus (HCV), assuming that the relative risk of disease in both carriers is 20. The incidence of HCC is expected to increase in the next two decades, largely due to hepatitis C infection and secondary cirrhosis. The prognosis is poor unless HCC is diagnosed and treated early. In Egypt, there is a growing incidence of HCC (10-120/100,000), which represent the leading cause of death from all cancer sites. HCC has nearly doubled over the last decade from 4.0% in 1993 to 7.2% in 2002 among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). In this review we present a summary of all the recent information on HCC and mention all the factors that might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis, beside our recommendation approach at the end of the article which would help our policy makers in developing a new strategy to reduce the increasing incidence of HCC in Egypt. © Nova Science Publishers, Inc.


Wang X.,University of Georgia | Wang X.,Hebei United University | Torres M.J.,University of Georgia | Pierce G.,University of Georgia | And 24 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2011

Background: Evolution of the Brassica species has been recursively affected by polyploidy events, and comparison to their relative, Arabidopsis thaliana, provides means to explore their genomic complexity.Results: A genome-wide physical map of a rapid-cycling strain of B. oleracea was constructed by integrating high-information-content fingerprinting (HICF) of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones with hybridization to sequence-tagged probes. Using 2907 contigs of two or more BACs, we performed several lines of comparative genomic analysis. Interspecific DNA synteny is much better preserved in euchromatin than heterochromatin, showing the qualitative difference in evolution of these respective genomic domains. About 67% of contigs can be aligned to the Arabidopsis genome, with 96.5% corresponding to euchromatic regions, and 3.5% (shown to contain repetitive sequences) to pericentromeric regions. Overgo probe hybridization data showed that contigs aligned to Arabidopsis euchromatin contain ~80% of low-copy-number genes, while genes with high copy number are much more frequently associated with pericentromeric regions. We identified 39 interchromosomal breakpoints during the diversification of B. oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, a relatively high level of genomic change since their divergence. Comparison of the B. oleracea physical map with Arabidopsis and other available eudicot genomes showed appreciable 'shadowing' produced by more ancient polyploidies, resulting in a web of relatedness among contigs which increased genomic complexity.Conclusions: A high-resolution genetically-anchored physical map sheds light on Brassica genome organization and advances positional cloning of specific genes, and may help to validate genome sequence assembly and alignment to chromosomes.All the physical mapping data is freely shared at a WebFPC site (http://lulu.pgml.uga.edu/fpc/WebAGCoL/brassica/WebFPC/; Temporarily password-protected: account: pgml; password: 123qwe123. © 2011 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Aroguz A.Z.,Istanbul University | Baysal K.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | Tasdelen B.,Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center | Baysal B.M.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | Baysal B.M.,Bogazici University
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2011

For applications in biotechnology to prepare biopolymers containing functional groups is essential. In addition, these materials have to be strong to provide physical support for practical applications. Recently, chitosan, polycaprolactone (PCL), and their various combinations were used for this purpose. In this work, we described the preparation and characterization of a new biodegradable polymeric gel containing chitosan and PCL. The gel preparation reactions were performed in suitable acetic acid solutions to obtain the products in high yields. A crosslinking agent was added to produce crosslinked gels. Swelling behavior of chitosan/PCL gels in different compositions was studied, and the results were compared. The chitosan/PCL gels show a rather large equilibrium swelling in water and in the phosphate buffered saline solution. Acrylic acid (AA) was added to these gels during preparation process to obtain a stable material for various applications. These polymeric gels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared. Their physical and morphological properties were investigated by using differential scanning calorimeter and scanning electron microscope techniques, respectively. Cell growth experiments indicate that chitosan, a positively charged polysaccharide, is not suitable for cell proliferation studies. On the other hand, the drug release studies were successful and, 59% of lidocaine, was released from a chitosan/PCL/AA hydrogel in buffer solution at pH = 7.4 at 37°C. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


El-Kenawy A.E.-M.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | El-Bendary A.H.,Menoufia University
International Journal of Cancer Research and Prevention | Year: 2014

HCC is unique among cancers occurring mostly in patients with chronic inflammation and cirrhosis. It continues to be the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide and due to its high mortality the third most common cause of cancer mortality, causing 9.2% of all cancer deaths. HCC has become the second most prevalent cancer among men in Egypt. Of all the HCC cases, it is estimated that 66% are attributable to hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 42% are attributable to Hepatitis C virus (HCV), assuming that the relative risk of disease in both carriers is 20. The incidence of HCC is expected to increase in the next two decades, largely due to hepatitis C infection and secondary cirrhosis. The prognosis is poor unless HCC is diagnosed and treated early. In Egypt, there is a growing incidence of HCC (10-120/100,000), which represent the leading cause of death from all cancer sites. HCC has nearly doubled over the last decade from 4.0% in 1993 to 7.2% in 2002 among patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). In this review we present a summary of all the recent information on HCC and mention all the factors that might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis, beside our recommendation approach at the end of the article which would help our policy makers in developing a new strategy to reduce the increasing incidence of HCC in Egypt. © Nova Science Publishers, Inc.


Ellis J.S.,University of Missouri | Guloglu F.B.,University of Missouri | Guloglu F.B.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | Zaghouani H.,University of Missouri
Immunology | Year: 2016

Effective humoral immunity ensues when antigen presentation by B cells culminates in productive cooperation with T lymphocytes. This collaboration, however, remains ill-defined because naive antigen-specific B cells are rare and difficult to track in vivo. Herein, we used a defined transfer model to examine how B lymphocytes, as antigen-presenting cells, shape the development of T-cell memory suitable for generation of relevant antibody responses. Specifically, we examined how B cells presenting different doses of antigen during the initial priming phase shape the development of CD4 T-cell memory and its influence on humoral immunity. The findings indicate that B cells presenting low dose of antigen favour the development of T helper type 1 (Th1) type memory, while those presenting a high antigen dose yielded better Th2 memory cells. The memory Th2 cells supported the production of antibodies by effector B cells and promoted isotype switching to IgG1. Moreover, among the B-cell subsets tested for induction of Th2 memory, the splenic but not peritoneal B220lo cells were most effective in sustaining Th2 memory development as well as immunoglobulin isotype switching, and this function involved a tight control by programmed death 1-programmed death ligand 2 interactions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Incesu Z.,Anadolu University | Hatipoglu I.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | Sivas H.,Anadolu University | Ergene E.,Anadolu University | Akalin Ciftci G.,Anadolu University
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2013

The aims of this study are the investigation of the effects of fibronectin and type IV collagen extracellular matrix proteins and the role of caspase-3 and-9 on cis-platin induced U2-OS apoptosis were studied. First the cytotoxic effects of cis-platin on cell system were investigated by colorimetric method and than morphological and ELISA analysis were used for determination of cell apoptosis when induced with cis-platin. In addition, after adhering the cells to fibronection or type IV collagen proteins, the apoptotic rate and the effects of caspase-3 and -9 were also investigated by ELISA in presence of specific inhibitors. U2-OS cells showed 20% cytotoxicity after treatment with 2.4 μM of cis-platin for 48 h. Morphological and the numerical data showed that cis-platin was able to induced apoptosis on cells as a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-3 and -9 inhibitors inhibited cis-platin-induced apoptosis in U2-OS cells, respectively. The binding of cells to 10 μg/mL of fibronectin but not type IV collagen enhanced the apoptosis about 2.5 fold that effects inhibited with caspase-3 inhibitor. The caspase-3 and -9 are involved in the apoptotic signals induced by cis-platin in U2-OS. The binding to fibronectin, but not type IV collagen enhanced the apoptotic response of U2-OS and fibronectin-dependent apoptosis was activated by caspase-3. These finding might be useful for patients to fight against osteosarcoma.


Ghaly P.E.,University of Alberta | Abou El-Magd R.M.,University of Alberta | Abou El-Magd R.M.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | Churchill C.D.M.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. Noscapine has low toxicity and recently it was also found to possess cytotoxic activity which led to the development of many noscapine analogues. In this paper we report on the synthesis and testing of a novel noscapine analogue. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay using SKBR-3 and paclitaxelresistant SKBR-3 breast cancer cell lines using different concentrations for both noscapine and the novel compound. Microtubule polymerization assay was used to determine the effect of the new compound on microtubules. To compare the binding affinity of noscapine and the novel compound to tubulin, we have done a fluorescence quenching assay. Finally, in silico methods using docking calculations were used to illustrate the binding mode of the new compound to α,β-tubulin. Our cytotoxicity results show that the new compound is more cytotoxic than noscapine on both SKBR-3 cell lines. This was confirmed by the stronger binding affinity of the new compound, compared to noscapine, to tubulin. Surprisingly, our new compound was found to have strong microtubule-destabilizing properties, while noscapine is shown to slightly stabilize microtubules. Our calculation indicated that the new compound has more binding affinity to the colchicine-binding site than to the noscapine site. This novel compound has a more potent cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines than its parent, noscapine, and hence should be of interest as a potential anti-cancer drug.


Cherbal A.,Jijel University | Kebieche M.,Jijel University | Madani K.,University of Abderrahmane Mira de Béjaïa | El-Adawi H.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2012

Pistacia lentiscus is known since antiquity for its medicinal properties. Its leaves have anti¬inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antipyretic, hepatoprotective and anti-diarrheal effects. They are also used in the treatment of several other diseases. This present study aims to the valorization of the hydro- methanolic extract of Pistacia lentiscus leaves as an antioxidant. First, a hydro-methanolic extraction of the total phenolic compounds contained in the leaves of Pistacia lentiscus was measured and then quantitative analysis of the polyphenol, flavonoids and tannins contents were carried out. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by measuring the reduction of hydrogen peroxide and the scavenging ability with respect to a relatively stable free radical (DPPH). Our results revealed that, the leaves extract has a significant scavenging activity, where it reached up to 76.4% at 200 fig mL-1 which is comparable with that of a-tocopherol. A moderate reducing power (37.04%) of H202 was recorded at 50 fig mL-1. In addition, the Pistacia lentiscus leaves extract was rich in polyphenols which seem to have a comparable antioxidant capacity and even more significant than that of the standards. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Karakas O.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute | Gurel F.,Istanbul University | Uncuoglu A.A.,Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute
Genetics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2010

Expressed sequence tag (EST) markers have been used to assess variety and genetic diversity in wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, 1549 ESTs from wheat infested with yellow rust were used to examine the genetic diversity of six susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. The aim of using these cultivars was to improve the competitiveness of public wheat breeding programs through the intensive use of modern, particularly marker-assisted, selection technologies. The F2 individuals derived from cultivar crosses were screened for resistance to yellow rust at the seedling stage in greenhouses and adult stage in the field to identify DNA markers genetically linked to resistance. Five hundred and sixty ESTs were assembled into 136 contigs and 989 singletons. BlastX search results showed that 39 (29%) contigs and 96 (10%) singletons were homologous to wheat genes. The database-matched contigs and singletons were assigned to eight functional groups related to protein synthesis, photosynthesis, metabolism and energy, stress proteins, transporter proteins, protein breakdown and recycling, cell growth and division and reactive oxygen scavengers. PCR analyses with primers based on the contigs and singletons showed that the most polymorphic functional categories were photosynthesis (contigs) and metabolism and energy (singletons). EST analysis revealed considerable genetic variability among the Turkish wheat cultivars resistant and susceptible to yellow rust disease and allowed calculation of the mean genetic distance between cultivars, with the greatest similarity (0.725) being between Harmankaya99 and Sönmez2001, and the lowest (0.622) between Aytin98 and Izgi01. © 2010, Sociedade Brasileira de Genética.

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