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Pedace L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Barboni L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Pozzetto E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Amantea A.,Laboratory of Dermopathology | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Darier disease (DD) is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by multiple warty papules coalescing in seborrheic areas and specific histological skin changes. Heterozygous mutations in ATP2A2, encoding the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium pumping ATPase type 2, are identified as the molecular basis of DD. In this study, molecular features in a large cohort of Italian patients are reported. Molecular data were collected along with the main clinical features. Genomic DNA was used for direct sequencing of ATP2A2. The effect of selected mutations was predicted by in silico analysis or investigated by gene expression studies. 10 different ATP2A2 mutations were identified. Three mutations (c.2300A>G, c.2794G>A, c.569delAins34) have been previously described, while 7, including 2 missense (c.545G>A and c.2116G>A), 2 nonsense (c.1372G>T and c.1675C>T), 1 small deletion (c.142delA), 1 duplication (c.2935_2949dup15) and 1 splicesite mutation (c.2742-1G>A), were novel. Collected data added new variants to the ATP2A2 repertoire and confirmed that ATP2A2 mutations are scattered over the entire gene and, in most cases, private.

Krieger M.,RWTH Aachen | Roos A.,RWTH Aachen | Stendel C.,RWTH Aachen | Claeys K.G.,RWTH Aachen | And 33 more authors.
Brain | Year: 2013

Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder featuring cerebellar ataxia, early-onset cataracts, chronic myopathy, variable intellectual disability and delayed motor development. More recently, mutations in the SIL1 gene, which encodes an endoplasmic reticulum resident co-chaperone, were identified as the main cause of Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. Here we describe the results of SIL1 mutation analysis in 62 patients presenting with early-onset ataxia, cataracts and myopathy or combinations of at least two of these. We obtained a mutation detection rate of 60% (15/25) among patients with the characteristic Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome triad (ataxia, cataracts, myopathy) whereas the detection rate in the group of patients with more variable phenotypic presentation was below 3% (1/37). We report 16 unrelated families with a total of 19 different SIL1 mutations. Among these mutations are 15 previously unreported changes, including single- and multi-exon deletions. Based on data from our screening cohort and data compiled from the literature we found that SIL1 mutations are invariably associated with the combination of a cerebellar syndrome and chronic myopathy. Cataracts were observed in all patients beyond the age of 7 years, but might be missing in infants. Six patients with SIL1 mutations had no intellectual disability, extending the known wide range of cognitive capabilities in Marinesco- Sjögren syndrome to include normal intelligence. Modestly constant features were somatic growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities and pyramidal tract signs. Examination of mutant SIL1 expression in cultured patient lymphoblasts suggested that SIL1 mutations result in severely reduced SIL1 protein levels irrespective of the type and position of mutations. Our data broaden the SIL1 mutation spectrum and confirm that SIL1 is the major Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome gene. SIL1 patients usually present with the characteristic triad but cataracts might be missing in young children. As cognitive impairment is not obligatory, patients without intellectual disability but a Marinesco- Sjögren syndrome-compatible phenotype should receive SIL1 mutation analysis. Despite allelic heterogeneity and many families with private mutations, the phenotype related to SIL1 mutations is relatively homogenous. Based on SIL1 expression studies we speculate that this may arise from a uniform effect of different mutations on protein expression. © The Author (2013).

Roosing S.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | Hofree M.,University of California at San Diego | Kim S.,New York University | Kim S.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute | And 41 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2015

Defective primary ciliogenesis or cilium stability forms the basis of human ciliopathies, including Joubert syndrome (JS), with defective cerebellar vermis development. We performed a high-content genome wide siRNA screen to identify genes regulating ciliogenesis as candidates for JS. We analyzed results with a supervised learning approach, using SYSCILIA gold standard, Cildb3.0, a centriole siRNA screen and the GTex project, identifying 591 likely candidates. Intersection of this data with whole exome results from 145 individuals with unexplained JS identified six families with predominantly compound heterozygous mutations in KIAA0586. A c.428del base deletion in 0.1% of the general population was found in trans with a second mutation in an additional set of 9 of 163 unexplained JS patients. KIAA0586 is an orthologue of chick Talpid3, required for ciliogenesis and sonic hedgehog signaling. Our results uncover a relatively high frequency cause for JS and contribute a list of candidates for future gene discoveries in ciliopathies. © 2015, eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. All rights reserved.

Romani M.,Laboratory Mendel | Mancini F.,Laboratory Mendel | Micalizzi A.,Laboratory Mendel | Micalizzi A.,Messina University | And 32 more authors.
Human Genetics | Year: 2014

Oral-facial-digital type VI syndrome (OFDVI) is a rare phenotype of Joubert syndrome (JS). Recently, C5orf42 was suggested as the major OFDVI gene, being mutated in 9 of 11 families (82 %). We sequenced C5orf42 in 313 JS probands and identified mutations in 28 (8.9 %), most with a phenotype of pure JS. Only 2 out of 17 OFDVI patients (11.7 %) were mutated. A comparison of mutated vs. non-mutated OFDVI patients showed that preaxial and mesoaxial polydactyly, hypothalamic hamartoma and other congenital defects may predict C5orf42 mutations, while tongue hamartomas are more common in negative patients. © 2014, The Author(s).

Novara F.,University of Pavia | Stanzial F.,Genetic Counselling Service | Rossi E.,University of Pavia | Benedicenti F.,Genetic Counselling Service | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A | Year: 2014

NSD1 point mutations, submicroscopic deletions and intragenic deletions are the major cause of Sotos syndrome, characterized by pre-postnatal generalized overgrowth with advanced bone age, learning disability, seizures, distinctive facial phenotype. Reverse clinical phenotype due to 5q35 microduplication encompassing NSD1 gene has been reported so far in 27 cases presenting with delayed bone age, microcephaly, failure to thrive and seizures in some cases, further supporting a gene dosage effect of NSD1 on growth regulation and neurological functions. Here we depict the clinical presentation of three new cases with 5q35 microduplication outlining a novel syndrome characterized by microcephaly, short stature, developmental delay and in some cases delayed bone maturation, without any typical facial or osseous anomalies. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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