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Wellington, CO, United States

Maher S.P.,University of Kansas | Maher S.P.,Kansas State University | Ellis C.,Kansas State University | Ellis C.,Genesis Laboratories Inc. | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is established across western North America, and yet little is known of what determines the broad-scale dimensions of its overall range. We tested whether its North American distribution represents a composite of individual host-plague associations (the "Host Niche Hypothesis"), or whether mammal hosts become infected only at sites overlapping ecological conditions appropriate for plague transmission and maintenance (the "Plague Niche Hypothesis"). We took advantage of a novel data set summarizing plague records in wild mammals newly digitized from paper-based records at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop range-wide tests of ecological niche similarity between mammal host niches and plague-infected host niches. Results indicate that plague infections occur under circumstances distinct from the broader ecological distribution of hosts, and that plague-infected niches are similar among hosts; hence, evidence coincides with the predictions of the Plague Niche Hypothesis, and contrasts with those of the Host Niche Hypothesis. The "plague niche" is likely driven by ecological requirements of vector flea species. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Genesis Laboratories LLC | Date: 2011-05-31

All purpose disinfectant with anti-bacterial and anti-microbial properties; anti-bacterial and anti-microbial alcohol skin sanitizer.

A composition for protecting from ultraviolet radiation is disclosed. The composition comprises a filter and an effectiveness indicator responsive to the reduction of effectiveness protection.

The invention relates to a new rapid release oral formulation of fipronil or imidacloprid for the effective control of blood-sucking insect populations. Embodiments of the invention relate to their use by incorporation into a feed-through formulation that can be administered orally to host animals such as birds, goats, dogs, and cattle for the rapid effective control of blood sucking insects. The formulation is fast acting and the residue of the chemicals present in the feces serves as a larvacide, effectively controlling newly hatched larvae.

Poche D.,Genesis Laboratories Inc. | Garlapati R.,Boring Canal Road | Ingenloff K.,Genesis Laboratories Inc. | Remmers J.,Genesis Laboratories Inc. | Poche R.,Genesis Laboratories Inc.
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2011

This study examined the spatial distribution and seasonal fluctuations of population densities of phlebotomine sand flies and was designed to obtain baseline data on the population trends of Phlebotomus argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia spp. in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India. Beginning on 28 October 2009 and through 20 October 2010, 63 CDC light traps were evenly distributed in human homes, cattle sheds, combined dwellings, chicken coops, and adjacent vegetation areas in three villages in the Saran District of Bihar State. Sand fly collections were made on a weekly basis, sorted, and identified according to species, sex, and feeding status of the two genera. The daily temperatures and relative humidity ranges were collected in a representative human home, cattle shed, and combined dwelling in each of the three study villages. Village census surveys were conducted in the three study villages in February 2010, acquiring human population data, structural composition data, and livestock census information, and documenting the history of visceral leishmaniasis within each household. A total of 52,653 sand flies was trapped and identified over 3,276 trap-nights. Peaks in abundance were observed in November 2009, March and April, June through August. Of the sand flies trapped, 72.1% were P. argentipes, 27.1%Sergentomyia spp., and 0.8%P. papatasi. Distribution of the sand fly captures included 30.6%, 26.7%, 18.6%, 12.1%, and 12.0% from vegetation, combined dwellings, cattle sheds, housing, and poultry houses, respectively. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

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