Genesis Cancer Care Queensland

Brisbane, Australia

Genesis Cancer Care Queensland

Brisbane, Australia
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Kakakhel M.B.,Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Jirasek A.,University of British Columbia | Johnston H.,University of Victoria | Kairn T.,Genesis Cancer Care Queensland | And 2 more authors.
Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine | Year: 2017

This study evaluated the feasibility of combining the ‘zero-scan’ (ZS) X-ray computed tomography (CT) based polymer gel dosimeter (PGD) readout with adaptive mean (AM) filtering for improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR), and to compare these results with available average scan (AS) X-ray CT readout techniques. NIPAM PGD were manufactured, irradiated with 6 MV photons, CT imaged and processed in Matlab. AM filter for two iterations, with 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 pixels (kernel size), was used in two scenarios (a) the CT images were subjected to AM filtering (pre-processing) and these were further employed to generate AS and ZS gel images, and (b) the AS and ZS images were first reconstructed from the CT images and then AM filtering was carried out (post-processing). SNR was computed in an ROI of 30 × 30 for different pre and post processing cases. Results showed that the ZS technique combined with AM filtering resulted in improved SNR. Using the previously-recommended 25 images for reconstruction the ZS pre-processed protocol can give an increase of 44% and 80% in SNR for 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 kernel sizes respectively. However, post processing using both techniques and filter sizes introduced blur and a reduction in the spatial resolution. Based on this work, it is possible to recommend that the ZS method may be combined with pre-processed AM filtering using appropriate kernel size, to produce a large increase in the SNR of the reconstructed PGD images. © 2017 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine


PubMed | Royal Brisbane and Womens Hospital, Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital and Queensland University of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2016

The aim of this work was to use a multicenter audit of modulated radiotherapy quality assurance (QA) data to provide a practical examination of gamma evaluation criteria and action level selection. The use of the gamma evaluation method for patient-specific pretreatment QA is widespread, with most commercial solutions implementing the method.Gamma agreement indices were calculated using the criteria 1%/1 mm, 2%/2 mm, 2%/3 mm, 3%/2 mm, 3%/3 mm, and 5%/3 mm for 1265 pretreatment QA measurements, planned at seven treatment centers, using four different treatment planning systems, delivered using three different delivery systems (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and helical tomotherapy) and measured using three different dose measurement systems. The sensitivity of each pair of gamma criteria was evaluated relative to the gamma agreement indices calculated using 3%/3 mm.A linear relationship was observed for 2%/2 mm, 2%/3 mm, and 3%/2 mm. This result implies that most beams failing at 3%/3 mm would also fail for those criteria, if the action level was adjusted appropriately. Some borderline plans might be passed or failed depending on the relative priority (tighter tolerance) used for dose difference or distance to agreement evaluation. Dosimeter resolution and treatment modality were found to have a smaller effect on the results of QA measurements than the number of dimensions (2D or 3D) over which the gamma evaluation was calculated.This work provides a method (and a large sample of results) for calculating equivalent action levels for different gamma evaluation criteria. This work constitutes a valuable guide for clinical decision making and a means to compare published gamma evaluation results from studies using different evaluation criteria. More generally, the data provided by this work support the recommendation that gamma criteria that specifically prioritize the property of greatest clinical importance for each treatment modality of anatomical site should be selected when using gamma evaluations for modulated radiotherapy QA. It is therefore suggested that departments using the gamma evaluation as a QA analysis tool should consider the relative importance of dose difference and distance to agreement, when selecting gamma evaluation criteria.


Kairn T.,Genesis Cancer Care Queensland | Kairn T.,Queensland University of Technology | Crowe S.B.,Queensland University of Technology | Langton C.M.,Queensland University of Technology | Trapp J.V.,Queensland University of Technology
Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine | Year: 2016

This study provides a bulk, retrospective analysis of 151 breast and chest wall radiotherapy treatment plans, as a small-scale demonstration of the potential breadth and value of the information that may be obtained from clinical data mining. The treatments were planned at three centres belonging to one organisation over a period of 3 months. All 151 plans were used to evaluate inter-centre consistency and compliance with a local planning protocol. A subset of 79 plans, from one centre, were used in a more detailed evaluation of the effects of anatomical asymmetry on heart and lung dose, the effects of a metallic temporary tissue expander port on dose homogeneity and the overall conformity and homogeneity achieved in routine breast treatment planning. Differences in anatomical structure contouring and nomenclature were identified between the three centres, with all centres showing some non-compliance with the local planning protocol. When evaluated against standard conformity indices, these breast plans performed relatively poorly. However, when evaluated against recommended organ-at-risk tolerances, all evaluated plans performed sufficiently well that tighter planning tolerances could be recommended for future planning. Heart doses calculated in left breast and chest wall treatments were significantly higher than heart doses calculated in right sided breast and chest wall treatments (p < 0.001). In the treatment involving a temporary tissue expander, the inflated implant effectively pushed the targeted breast tissue away from the healthy tissues, leading to a dose distribution that was relatively conformal, although attenuation through the tissue expander’s metallic port may have been underestimated by the treatment planning system. The results of this study exemplify the use of bulk treatment planning data to evaluate clinical workloads and inform ongoing treatment planning. © 2016 Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine


Crowe S.B.,Queensland University of Technology | Kairn T.,Queensland University of Technology | Kenny J.,Epworth Radiation Oncology | Knight R.T.,Genesis Cancer Care Queensland | And 3 more authors.
Australasian Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine | Year: 2014

The planning of IMRT treatments requires a compromise between dose conformity (complexity) and deliverability. This study investigates established and novel treatment complexity metrics for 122 IMRT beams from prostate treatment plans. The Treatment and Dose Assessor software was used to extract the necessary data from exported treatment plan files and calculate the metrics. For most of the metrics, there was strong overlap between the calculated values for plans that passed and failed their quality assurance (QA) tests. However, statistically significant variation between plans that passed and failed QA measurements was found for the established modulation index and for a novel metric describing the proportion of small apertures in each beam. The ‘small aperture score’ provided threshold values which successfully distinguished deliverable treatment plans from plans that did not pass QA, with a low false negative rate. © 2014, Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine.


PubMed | Bond University, Genesis Cancer Care Queensland and Queensland University of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical dosimetry : official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists | Year: 2016

Cancer often metastasizes to the vertebra, and such metastases can be treated successfully using simple, static posterior or opposed-pair radiation fields. However, in some cases, including when re-irradiation is required, spinal cord avoidance becomes necessary and more complex treatment plans must be used. This study evaluated 16 sample intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans designed to treat 6 typical vertebral and paraspinal volumes using a standard prescription, with the aim of investigating the advantages and limitations of these treatment techniques and providing recommendations for their optimal use in vertebral treatments. Treatment plan quality and beam complexity metrics were evaluated using the Treatment And Dose Assessor (TADA) code. A portal-imaging-based quality assurance (QA) system was used to evaluate treatment delivery accuracy, and radiochromic film measurements were used to provide high-resolution verification of treatment plan dose accuracy, especially in the steep dose gradient regions between each vertebral target and spinal cord. All treatment modalities delivered approximately the same doses and the same levels of dose heterogeneity to each planning target volume (PTV), although the minimum PTV doses in the vertebral plans were substantially lower than the prescription, because of the requirement that the plans meet a strict constraint on the dose to the spinal cord and cord planning risk volume (PRV). All plans met required dose constraints on all organs at risk, and all measured PTV-cord dose gradients were steeper than planned. Beam complexity analysis suggested that the IMRT treatment plans were more deliverable (less complex, leading to greater QA success) than the VMAT treatment plans, although the IMRT plans also took more time to deliver. The accuracy and deliverability of VMAT treatment plans were found to be substantially increased by limiting the number of monitor units (MU) per beam at the optimization stage, and thereby limiting beam modulation complexity. The VMAT arcs that were optimized with MU limitation had higher QA pass rates as well as higher modulation complexity scores (less complexity), lower modulation indices (less modulation), lower MU per beam, larger beam segments, and fewer small apertures than the VMAT arcs that were optimized without MU limitation. It is recommended that VMAT treatments for vertebral volumes, where the PTV abuts or surrounds the spinal cord, should be optimized with MU limitation. IMRT treatments may be preferable to the VMAT treatments, for dosimetry and deliverability reasons, but may be inappropriate for some patients because of their increased treatment delivery time.


PubMed | Genesis Cancer Care Queensland and Queensland University of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine | Year: 2016

This study provides a bulk, retrospective analysis of 151 breast and chest wall radiotherapy treatment plans, as a small-scale demonstration of the potential breadth and value of the information that may be obtained from clinical data mining. The treatments were planned at three centres belonging to one organisation over a period of 3 months. All 151 plans were used to evaluate inter-centre consistency and compliance with a local planning protocol. A subset of 79 plans, from one centre, were used in a more detailed evaluation of the effects of anatomical asymmetry on heart and lung dose, the effects of a metallic temporary tissue expander port on dose homogeneity and the overall conformity and homogeneity achieved in routine breast treatment planning. Differences in anatomical structure contouring and nomenclature were identified between the three centres, with all centres showing some non-compliance with the local planning protocol. When evaluated against standard conformity indices, these breast plans performed relatively poorly. However, when evaluated against recommended organ-at-risk tolerances, all evaluated plans performed sufficiently well that tighter planning tolerances could be recommended for future planning. Heart doses calculated in left breast and chest wall treatments were significantly higher than heart doses calculated in right sided breast and chest wall treatments (p < 0.001). In the treatment involving a temporary tissue expander, the inflated implant effectively pushed the targeted breast tissue away from the healthy tissues, leading to a dose distribution that was relatively conformal, although attenuation through the tissue expanders metallic port may have been underestimated by the treatment planning system. The results of this study exemplify the use of bulk treatment planning data to evaluate clinical workloads and inform ongoing treatment planning.


PubMed | Genesis Cancer Care Queensland and Queensland University of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine | Year: 2016

This study aims to help broaden the use of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) for pre-treatment patient positioning verification, from photon-beam radiotherapy to photon- and electron-beam radiotherapy, by proposing and testing a method for acquiring clinically-useful EPID images of patient anatomy using electron beams, with a view to enabling and encouraging further research in this area. EPID images used in this study were acquired using all available beams from a linac configured to deliver electron beams with nominal energies of 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV, as well as photon beams with nominal energies of 6 and 10 MV. A widely-available heterogeneous, approximately-humanoid, thorax phantom was used, to provide an indication of the contrast and noise produced when imaging different types of tissue with comparatively realistic thicknesses. The acquired images were automatically calibrated, corrected for the effects of variations in the sensitivity of individual photodiodes, using a flood field image. For electron beam imaging, flood field EPID calibration images were acquired with and without the placement of blocks of water-equivalent plastic (with thicknesses approximately equal to the practical range of electrons in the plastic) placed upstream of the EPID, to filter out the primary electron beam, leaving only the bremsstrahlung photon signal. While the electron beam images acquired using a standard (unfiltered) flood field calibration were observed to be noisy and difficult to interpret, the electron beam images acquired using the filtered flood field calibration showed tissues and bony anatomy with levels of contrast and noise that were similar to the contrast and noise levels seen in the clinically acceptable photon beam EPID images. The best electron beam imaging results (highest contrast, signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios) were achieved when the images were acquired using the higher energy electron beams (16 and 20 MeV) when the EPID was calibrated using an intermediate (12 MeV) electron beam energy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of acquiring clinically-useful EPID images of patient anatomy using electron beams and suggest important avenues for future investigation, thus enabling and encouraging further research in this area. There is manifest potential for the EPID imaging method proposed in this work to lead to the clinical use of electron beam imaging for geometric verification of electron treatments in the future.


PubMed | Genesis Cancer Care Queensland, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center, Auckland City Hospital and Townsville Cancer Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology | Year: 2016

The development of technology such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) has resulted in highly conformal radiotherapy treatments. While such technology has allowed for improved dose delivery, it has also meant that improved accuracy in the treatment room is required. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), the use of imaging prior to or during treatment delivery, has been shown to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery and in some circumstances, clinical outcomes. Allied with the adoption of highly conformal treatments, there is a need for stringent quality assurance processes in a multidisciplinary environment. In 2015, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologist (RANZCR) updated its position paper on IGRT. The draft document was distributed through the membership of the Faculty of Radiation Oncology (FRO) for review and the final version was endorsed by the board of FRO. This article describes issues that radiotherapy departments throughout Australia and New Zealand should consider. It outlines the role of IGRT and reviews current clinical evidence supporting the benefit of IGRT in genitourinary, head and neck, and lung cancers. It also highlights important international publications which provide guidance on implementation and quality assurances for IGRT. A set of key recommendations are provided to guide safe and effective IGRT implementation and practice in the Australian and New Zealander context.


PubMed | Genesis Cancer Care Queensland
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Journal of medical imaging and radiation oncology | Year: 2016

At present, post-implant CT-based dosimetry is a standard quality assurance practice following low dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy. However, it rarely influences management and involves radiation exposure, costs and inconvenience. The purpose of our study was to assess the need for post-implant CT-based dosimetry through correlation with pre-implant and real-time dosimetry and review its place in the management of patients treated with LDR brachytherapy, so that it could be undertaken more selectively.The real-time dosimetry parameters of 34 consecutive patients who underwent LDR brachytherapy were compared with day 30 post-implant CT-based dosimetry. To validate our results against the world practice, we performed a meta-analysis of six relevant published studies, which combined data from 699 patients. The Students t-test was performed to verify whether our dosimetric parameters significantly differ from the results of the meta-analysis.In our case series, the mean target volume on real-time-planned US and post-implant CT was 33.9 and 32.7 cc, respectively (P > 0.05). The dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were significantly different between real-time-planned and post-implant dosimetry, but re-implantation was not needed for any patients. The literature review demonstrated that there is no consensus on measures being reported. Comparison showed that our cohort had significantly smaller prostate volumes, but the DVHs were similar to other series.Post-implant CT and dosimetry did not alter patients management after real-time intraoperative planning. However, we recommend that it still be employed for difficult cases or if there are any concerns identified in real-time planned dosimetry.


PubMed | Genesis Cancer Care Queensland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Australasian physical & engineering sciences in medicine | Year: 2015

Given that there is increasing recognition of the effect that sub-millimetre changes in collimator position can have on radiotherapy beam dosimetry, this study aimed to evaluate the potential variability in small field collimation that may exist between otherwise matched linacs. Field sizes and field output factors were measured using radiochromic film and an electron diode, for jaw- and MLC-collimated fields produced by eight dosimetrically matched Varian iX linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA). This study used nominal sizes from 0.60.6 to 1010cm(2), for jaw-collimated fields, and from 11 to 1010cm(2) for MLC-collimated fields, delivered from a zero (head up, beam directed vertically downward) gantry angle. Differences between the field sizes measured for the eight linacs exceeded the uncertainty of the film measurements and the repositioning uncertainty of the jaws and MLCs on one linac. The dimensions of fields defined by MLC leaves were more consistent between linacs, while also differing more from their nominal values than fields defined by orthogonal jaws. The field output factors measured for the different linacs generally increased with increasing measured field size for the nominal 0.60.6 to 11cm(2) fields, and became consistent between linacs for nominal field sizes of 22cm(2) and larger. The inclusion in radiotherapy treatment planning system beam data of small field output factors acquired in fields collimated by jaws (rather than the more-reproducible MLCs), associated with either the nominal or the measured field sizes, should be viewed with caution. The size and reproducibility of the fields (especially the small fields) used to acquire treatment planning data should be investigated thoroughly as part of the linac or planning system commissioning process. Further investigation of these issues, using different linac models, collimation systems and beam orientations, is recommended.

Loading Genesis Cancer Care Queensland collaborators
Loading Genesis Cancer Care Queensland collaborators