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Upper Saddle River, NJ, United States

Gupta K.,The National Center for Occupational Health and Infection Control | Gupta K.,Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center | Gupta K.,Boston University | Martinello R.A.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background: Patterns of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage over time and across the continuum of care settings are poorly characterized. Knowledge of prevalence rates and outcomes associated with MRSA nasal carriage patterns could help direct infection prevention strategies. The VA integrated health-care system and active surveillance program provides an opportunity to delineate nasal carriage patterns and associated outcomes of death, infection, and conversion in carriage. Methods/Findings: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients admitted to 5 acute care VA hospitals between 2008-2010 who had nasal MRSA PCR testing within 48 hours of admission and repeat testing within 30 days. The PCR results were used to define a baseline nasal carriage pattern of never, intermittently, or always colonized at 30 days from admission. Follow-up was up to two years and included acute, long-term, and outpatient care visits. Among 18,038 patients, 91.1%, 4.4%, and 4.6% were never, intermittently, or always colonized at the 30-day baseline. Compared to non-colonized patients, those who were persistently colonized had an increased risk of death (HR 2.58; 95% CI 2.18;3.05) and MRSA infection (HR 10.89; 95% CI 8.6;13.7). Being in the non-colonized group at 30 days had a predictive value of 87% for being non-colonized at 1 year. Conversion to MRSA colonized at 6 months occurred in 11.8% of initially non-colonized patients. Age >70 years, long-term care, antibiotic exposure, and diabetes identified >95% of converters. Conclusions: The vast majority of patients are not nasally colonized with MRSA at 30 days from acute hospital admission. Conversion from non-carriage is infrequent and can be risk-stratified. A positive carriage pattern is strongly associated with infection and death. Active surveillance programs in the year following carriage pattern designation could be tailored to focus on non-colonized patients who are at high risk for conversion, reducing universal screening burden.

Desai N.R.,Yale University | Desai N.R.,Harvard University | Canestaro W.J.,Harvard University | Canestaro W.J.,University of Washington | And 6 more authors.
Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes | Year: 2013

Background - Patients treated with clopidogrel who have ≥1 loss of function alleles for CYP2C19 have an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a boxed warning cautioning against the use of clopidogrel in such patients. We sought to assess the impact of CYP2C19 genetic testing on prescribing patterns for antiplatelet therapy among patients with acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods and Results - Patients with recent acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention prescribed clopidogrel were offered CYP2C19 testing. Genotype and phenotype results were provided to patients and their physicians, but no specific treatment recommendations were suggested. Patients were categorized based on their genotype (carriers versus noncarriers) and phenotype (extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers). The primary outcome was intensification in antiplatelet therapy defined as either dose escalation of clopidogrel or replacement of clopidogrel with prasugrel. Between July 2010 and April 2012, 6032 patients were identified, and 499 (8.3%) underwent CYP2C19 genotyping, of whom 146 (30%) were found to have ≥1 reduced function allele, including 15 (3%) with 2 reduced function alleles. Although reduced function allele carriers were significantly more likely than noncarriers to have an intensification of their antiplatelet therapy, only 20% of poor metabolizers of clopidogrel had their antiplatelet therapy intensified. Conclusions - Providers were significantly more likely to intensify antiplatelet therapy in CYP2C19 allele carriers, but only 20% of poor metabolizers of clopidogrel had an escalation in the dose of clopidogrel or were switched to prasugrel. These prescribing patterns likely reflect the unclear impact and evolving evidence for clopidogrel pharmacogenomics. © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc.

de Sonneville-Koedoot C.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | de Sonneville-Koedoot C.,Erasmus Medical Center | Stolk E.A.,Erasmus University Rotterdam | Raat H.,Generation Health | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fluency Disorders | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the health-related quality of life (HrQoL) of preschool children who stutter (CWS) and a reference population of children who do not stutter, and to evaluate the association between stuttering severity and HrQoL. Methods: Baseline data were used from 197 children participating in a multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial in the Netherlands. Information on stuttering severity and time since onset (TSO) of stuttering was obtained from the baseline evaluation by speech- and language therapists. Stuttering severity was measured using the SSI-3. HrQoL was assessed using proxy versions of two Child Health Questionnaires (ITQOL-97 and CHQ-PF28), the Health Utility Index 3 (HUI3) and the EuroQoL EQ-VAS (EQ-VAS). Results: While the outcomes on the EQ-VAS and the HUI3 showed that the HrQoL of CWS is slightly poorer than that of the Dutch reference population, results on the different dimensions of the CHQ-instruments did not reveal any difference in scores between stuttering children and reference groups. Within the group of CWS, two ITQOL-97 and four CHQ-PF28 scales showed statistically different scores for children in different SSI stuttering severity or TSO categories. However, the effect sizes showed that these differences were so small that they could be considered negligible. Conclusion: The results of this study do not reveal a diminished HrQoL for preschool CWS. Future research should include a larger cohort of children with severe stuttering, study the longitudinal course of HrQoL and incorporate additional parameters such as the characteristics of the child and his environment.Educational objectives: The reader will be able to: (a) summarize the current evidence base on HrQoL in people who stutter; (b) describe the HrQoL of preschool CWS on different HrQoL measures; (c) describe the relationship between stuttering severity and HrQoL in preschool CWS. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

McAuliffe R.,UISCE Union for Improved Services Communication and Education | Long J.,Generation Health
Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective: We describe use and effects of head shop powders among opiate dependant polydrug users and recreational drug users. These powders contain cathinones and were sold as bath salts or plant food via the internet or in head shops. Method: As this is a relatively new phenomenon, a qualitative approach using three data sources, in-depth interviews, a focus group (containing 10 opiate users) and a head shop website containing 49 product reviews, was employed. Themes were identified. Results: According to the study population, these powders mimic the effects of cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamines. These substances were snorted, ingested or injected by people and were not used as bath salts or plant food. The users' experience indicates that these powders have the potential for dependence, and exhibit side effects such as insomnia, anxiety and other mental health effects. The users report that the effects of the substances vary over time indicating that the chemical contents of the powders may change. Conclusion: Though users' descriptions of effects varied, there were indications of health and dependency effects which were more severe and more common among problematic opiate users, who also experienced increased social vulnerability. In general the recreational drug users considered their side effects to be mild and worth the drug induced experience.

Generation Health | Date: 2003-04-08

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