Time filter

Source Type

Blair M.W.,National University of Colombia | Blair M.W.,Tennessee State University | Cordoba J.M.,CORPOICA | Munoz C.,Generation Challenge Program | Yuyo D.K.,National University of Colombia

Highly polymorphic markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are very useful for genetic mapping. In this study novel SSRs were identified in BAC-end sequences (BES) from non-contigged, non-overlapping bacterial artificial clones (BACs) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). These so called ''singleton''BACs were from the G19833 Andean gene pool physical map and the new BES-SSR markers were used for the saturation of the inter-gene pool, DOR364×G19833 genetic map. A total of 899 SSR loci were found among the singleton BES, but only 346 loci corresponded to the single dior tri-nucleotide motifs that were likely to be polymorphic (ATT or AG motifs, principally) and useful for primer design and individual marker mapping. When these novel SSR markers were evaluated in the DOR364×G19833 population parents, 136 markers revealed polymorphism and 106 were mapped. Genetic mapping resulted in a map length of 2291 cM with an average distance between markers of 5.2 cM. The new genetic map was compared to the most recent cytogenetic analysis of common bean chromosomes. We found that the new singleton BES-SSR were helpful in filling peri-centromeric spaces on the cytogenetic map. Short genetic distances between some new singleton-derived BES-SSR markers was common showing suppressed recombination in these regions compared to other parts of the genome. The correlation of singleton-derived SSR marker distribution with other cytogenetic features of the bean genome is discussed. © 2014 Blair et al. Source

Almeida G.D.,Federal University of Vicosa | Almeida G.D.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Makumbi D.,CIMMYT | Magorokosho C.,CIMMYT | And 7 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Despite numerous published reports of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for drought-related traits, practical applications of such QTL in maize improvement are scarce. Identifying QTL of sizeable effects that express more or less uniformly in diverse genetic backgrounds across contrasting water regimes could significantly complement conventional breeding efforts to improve drought tolerance. We evaluated three tropical bi-parental populations under water-stress (WS) and well-watered (WW) regimes in Mexico, Kenya and Zimbabwe to identify genomic regions responsible for grain yield (GY) and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) across multiple environments and diverse genetic backgrounds. Across the three populations, on average, drought stress reduced GY by more than 50 % and increased ASI by 3. 2 days. We identified a total of 83 and 62 QTL through individual environment analyses for GY and ASI, respectively. In each population, most QTL consistently showed up in each water regime. Across the three populations, the phenotypic variance explained by various individual QTL ranged from 2. 6 to 17. 8 % for GY and 1. 7 to 17. 8 % for ASI under WS environments and from 5 to 19. 5 % for GY under WW environments. Meta-QTL (mQTL) analysis across the three populations and multiple environments identified seven genomic regions for GY and one for ASI, of which six mQTL on chr. 1, 4, 5 and 10 for GY were constitutively expressed across WS and WW environments. One mQTL on chr. 7 for GY and one on chr. 3 for ASI were found to be 'adaptive' to WS conditions. High throughput assays were developed for SNPs that delimit the physical intervals of these mQTL. At most of the QTL, almost equal number of favorable alleles was donated by either of the parents within each cross, thereby demonstrating the potential of drought tolerant × drought tolerant crosses to identify QTL under contrasting water regimes. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Almeida G.D.,Federal University of Vicosa | Almeida G.D.,Monsanto Corporation | Nair S.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Borem A.,Federal University of Vicosa | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Breeding

Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) of sizeable effects that are expressed in diverse genetic backgrounds across contrasting water regimes particularly for secondary traits can significantly complement the conventional drought tolerance breeding efforts. We evaluated three tropical maize biparental populations under water-stressed and well-watered regimes for drought-related morpho-physiological traits, such as anthesis-silking interval (ASI), ears per plant (EPP), stay-green (SG) and plant-to-ear height ratio (PEH). In general, drought stress reduced the genetic variance of grain yield (GY), while that of morpho-physiological traits remained stable or even increased under drought conditions. We detected consistent genomic regions across different genetic backgrounds that could be target regions for marker-assisted introgression for drought tolerance in maize. A total of 203 QTL for ASI, EPP, SG and PEH were identified under both the water regimes. Meta-QTL analysis across the three populations identified six constitutive genomic regions with a minimum of two overlapping traits. Clusters of QTL were observed on chromosomes 1.06, 3.06, 4.09, 5.05, 7.03 and 10.04/06. Interestingly, a ~8-Mb region delimited in 3.06 harboured QTL for most of the morpho-physiological traits considered in the current study. This region contained two important candidate genes viz., zmm16 (MADS-domain transcription factor) and psbs1 (photosystem II unit) that are responsible for reproductive organ development and photosynthate accumulation, respectively. The genomic regions identified in this study partially explained the association of secondary traits with GY. Flanking single nucleotide polymorphism markers reported herein may be useful in marker-assisted introgression of drought tolerance in tropical maize. © 2014 The Author(s). Source

Sharma P.N.,Agricultural University | Diaz L.M.,Generation Challenge Program | Blair M.W.,Generation Challenge Program | Blair M.W.,National University of Colombia | Blair M.W.,Cornell University
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation

India is the second most populous nation in the world after China, and its plant genetic resources are an important basis for crop improvement to meet human population needs. An important legume in the diet of the Indian population is common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Common beans are one of the many important legumes grown in India, but unlike others, its centre of origin is not in Asia but in the Americas. The objective of this study was to evaluate two collections of Indian common beans: one for an internationally available collection of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)-protected accessions and one from the north-western Himalayan region. In total, 149 Indian landraces were evaluated with a total of 24 microsatellites across the two collections, and these represented all common bean-growing states of India. A population structure analysis was used to find groups in each collection, and this was compared across the collections. The genetic analysis of the two sets of Indian accessions with neighbour-joining trees and principal component analysis categorized the landraces into Andean and Mesoamerican gene pool groups. The Andean genotypes dominated the north-western Himalayan collection while the FAO-protected accessions were predominantly Mesoamerican. The Indian subcontinent can be considered as a region of high bean diversity; however, very little introgression was observed between the gene pools in both the germplasm sets. Gene pool identity was further substantiated by the comparison of seed traits, particularly seed size. The role of the landraces in plant breeding programmes is discussed. Copyright © 2013 NIAB. Source

Arnaud E.,Third University of Rome | Cooper L.,Oregon State University | Shrestha R.,Centro Internacional Of Mejoramiento Of Maiz Y Trigo Cimmyt | Menda N.,Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research | And 7 more authors.
KEOD 2012 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development

Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant traits important for agriculture in order to address major scientific challenges such as food security. We present three successful species and/or clade-specific ontologies which address the needs of crop scientists to quickly access a wide range of trait related data, but their scope limits their interoperability with one another. In this paper, we present our vision of a species-neutral and overarching Reference Plant Trait Ontology which would be the basis for linking the disparate knowledge domains and that will support data integration and data mining across species. Source

Discover hidden collaborations