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Kirejtshuk A.G.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Poschmann M.,Generaldirektion Kulturelles Erbe | Prokop J.,Charles University | Garrouste R.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute | Nel A.,CNRS Systematics, Biodiversity and Evolution Institute
Journal of Systematic Palaeontology | Year: 2014

The oldest definitive beetle, Coleopsis archaica gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Permian (Asselian or early Sakmarian) of Germany (Grügelborn/Saarland). Its elytral venation is typical of the Early Permian Tshekardocoleidae. The elytral venation pattern of the type of Moravocoleus permianus Kukalová, 1969 is reconsidered in order to clarify structural peculiarities of the type genus of Moravocoleidae Kukalová-Peck & Beutel, 2011, herein regarded as a junior synonym of Tshekardocoleidae. The new discovery allows reinterpretation of the elytral venation, abdominal laterosternites, and other structures, making it possible to identify a subelytral space. Tshekardocoleoidea and Labradorocolidae are confirmed as Coleoptera, while Umenocoleidae sensu nov. and Umenocoleoidea are restored to Holometabola as a potential sister group of all Coleoptera. The holotype of Umenocoleus sinuatus Chen & Tan, 1973 needs to be revised in more detail. Moravocoleus perditus Kukalová, 1969, regarded by Ponomarenko as a member of the genus Avocoleus, is excluded from Tshekardocoleidae and preliminarily considered as Archostemata incertae sedis. Oborocoleidae is considered as a taxon of more dubious position (order uncertain for Oborocoleus Kukalová, 1969, while Liberocoleus Kukalová, 1969 probably belongs to Archostemata (family uncertain)). Protocoleoptera and Paracoleoptera are considered as synonyms of Protelytroptera, while Archecoleoptera is dismissed as a paraphyletic group. Adiphlebia lacoana Scudder, 1885, previously proposed as the oldest beetle, is not a member of Coleoptera, as confirmed by Kukalová-Peck & Beutel (2012). The composition of beetle suborders and the origin of the order, which probably took place concurrently with the initial diversification of other holometabolan insects, are briefly discussed. © 2013 Natural History Museum.

The first record of horseshoe crabs (Xiphosurida) from the Permocarboniferous of the Saar-Nahe Basin dates from about two decades ago. Since then a number of new finds have come to light, all from the Meisenheim Formation of the lower Rotliegend. Recently, a new occurrence, which belongs to the younger Thallichtenberg Formation, has been detected during earthworks. This constitutes the hitherto youngest occurrence of Xiphosurids in the Saar-Nahe Basin. The Xiphosurid host strata are evaluated and compared to each other in terms of lithology and palaeoecology. In all cases they represent moderately deep to deep lake deposits, which were, at least at times, well-aerated and influenced by deltaic input.

Uhl D.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum | Uhl D.,Senckenberg Institute | Jasper A.,Setor de Botanica e Paleobotanica | Schindler T.,Buro fur Palaontologie | Wuttke M.,Generaldirektion Kulturelles Erbe
Palaios | Year: 2010

As direct evidence of paleowildfires, fossil charcoal has so far rarely been reported from Triassic rocks around the world. Indeed there seems to be a scarcity of reports of charcoal between the PermianTriassic boundary (PTB) and the Ladinian (upper Middle Triassic), an interval of ∼16 myr. There are only a few published records in this time period, consisting either of microscopic charcoal in palynological samples or of indirect evidence such as potential fire scars in wood. Macroscopic charcoal has recently been discovered in the early Middle Triassic (early Anisian) Voltzia Sandstone fossil Lagersttte in southwestern Germany, providing the oldest macroscopic post-Permian evidence of wildfire currently known. Previous authors have suggested a lack of fuel as a reason for the scarcity of charcoal in Lower-Middle Triassic rocks. As the Voltzia Sandstone includes the oldest known, moderately diverse regional paleoflora after the PTB (interpreted by some authors as representing the recovery of the land flora after end-Permian biotic events), a lack of fuel cannot be claimed as a possible reason for the scarceness of charcoal in these rocks. It seems possible in this particular case that previous researchers simply may have overlooked charcoal remains from this formation, either because they were not recognized or were not considered important at the time. © 2010 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

The type locality of the papillatum shelly bed and the Kirchberg Bed (Oligocene, Rheinhesse, Germany) is described lithologically and interpreted litho-stratigrafically. The fossil content is listed, using published and new done samplings. The biofacies is interpreted. The relative position and vertical succession of the Albig Bed, the papillatum shelly bed and the Kirchberg Bed is clear fixable: the papillatum shelly bed follows about 24 m above the fully marine Albig Bed. It is developed on a brackish-marine mud flat colonized by diverse molluscans. Episodically to periodically, it is reworked by storm activity. For the first time terrestrial mammals are documented in this bed, indicating sluicing from a nearby terrestrial realm. In the Kirchberg Bed, limnic to palustrine conditions are alternating, interrupted by a thin brackish to marine layer. That is reflected by alternating lithologies, too.

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