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Martina M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Masera G.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Papaharalabos S.,Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing | Papaharalabos S.,Athens Information Technology | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement | Year: 2012

In this paper, we deal with practical implementation issues of the max * operation in generalized form used for decoding of both turbo and low-density-parity-check (LDPC) codes. In particular, first, a unified framework for the so-called generalized max * operation is established, which includes most of the previously published algorithms already known for turbo decoding. Next, the hardware architectures used for the practical implementation of the generalized max * operation, which is derived from this novel framework, are revealed for the first time and further analyzed, in terms of hardware complexity reduction. It is also shown how this generalized max * operation can be adopted in LDPC decoding, achieving essentially optimal bit error rate performance with small computational complexity against other algorithms in joint turbo-LDPC architectures. This solution is useful in applications where joint decoding architectures are deployed to decode both turbo and LDPC codes. An important example of such application is in software radio receivers of 4G wireless communication systems, such as those proposed in conjunction with the WiMAX standard. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Ntaios G.,University of Thessaly | Melikoki V.,University of Thessaly | Perifanos G.,University of Thessaly | Perlepe K.,University of Thessaly | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Although stroke is the fourth cause of death in Western societies, public stroke awareness remains suboptimal. The aim of this study was to estimate stroke risk perception and stroke awareness in Greece through a cross-sectional telephone survey. Methods: A trained interview team conducted this cross-sectional telephone survey between February and April 2014 using an online structured questionnaire. Participants were selected using random digit dialing of landline and mobile telephone numbers with quota sampling weighted for geographical region based on the most recent General Population Census (2011). Results: Between February and April 2014, 723 individuals (418 women [58%], 47.4 6 17.8 years) agreed to respond. Among all respondents, 642 (88.8%) were able to provide at least 1 stroke risk factor; 673 respondents (93.08%) were able to provide correctly at least 1 stroke symptom or sign. When asked what would they do in case of acute onset of stroke symptoms, 497 (68.7%) responded that they would either call the ambulance or visit the closest emergency department. Only 35.3%, 18.9%, 17.2%, 20.7%, and 15.0% of respondents with atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and current smoking, respectively, considered themselves as being in high risk for stroke. Conclusions: Stroke risk perception in Greece is low despite moderate public stroke awareness. © 2015 by National Stroke Association. Source


Skalova H.,General University | Dundr P.,General University | Povysil C.,General University | Velenska Z.,General University | And 2 more authors.
Folia Biologica (Czech Republic) | Year: 2011

Her2/neu proto-oncogene amplification and protein over-expression is observed in 20-40 % of patients with breast cancer and plays a crucial role in invasive breast cancer and its treatment. A number of studies postulated the stability of Her2/ neu gene expression, showing that in most patients the status of expression had not significantly changed after the neoadjuvant treatment. In the present study, we investigated samples from 20 patients with invasive breast carcinoma who had undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequent surgery. In all cases, the expression level of Her2/neu was evaluated in both pre-therapeutically obtained tumour tissue by core needle biopsy and from specimens obtained during final surgery using immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction methods were used for verifying the results obtained by immunohistochemistry. Her2/neu status determined by immunohistochemistry remained unchanged in 12 of 20 (60 %) patients after neoadjuvant treatment. In six cases (30 %) minor changes were observed after the treatment. However, in two cases (10 %) we found altered Her2/neu expression from strongly positive in the pre-treatment biopsy to negative in the post-treatment surgery specimen. Moreover, this is the first report describing the changes in Her2/neu status at all protein, RNA and DNA levels by using immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization, respectively. By using variable methods we demonstrated possible new ways for Her2/neu detection and their dependability. Improvement in specific molecule detection can prevent the use of tailored targeted therapy in an untargeted manner. © 2006 - 2013 Folia Biologica. Source

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