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Marikar F.M.M.T.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science | Year: 2015

This paper describes the development of a Dig-dUTP based multiplex real time RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of HCV viral amount in plasma samples. Viral genomes were identified in the same sample by Dig-dUTP PCR 216 bp region. Analysis of known scalar concentrations of reference plasma indicated that the multiplex procedure detects at least 500 copies/ml of HCV. In addition, we also assayed HCV viral load in eighty co-infected patients and in fifteen blood donors, confirming the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. This method may represent a useful alternative method for the detection of HCV co-infection, reliable for a rapid and relatively inexpensive screening of blood donors. The assay may be used to determine post-therapy viral clearance. © 2015, Ibn Sina Trust. All rights reserved.

Senaratne B.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University
Maritime Affairs | Year: 2016

The Indian Ocean covers 20% of the Earth and is ranked as the third largest water body in the world. It has various matters related to maritime affairs which have to be resolved and policies that need to be implemented to ensure maritime safety and security of the littoral countries. In this context, the formulation of a common maritime policy will be beneficial in safeguarding not only the states but also the natural resources in the region. This paper demonstrates that the use of public diplomacy is a beneficial tool in formulating a common maritime policy. It also argues that this tool is useful in influencing public and governments in cooperating towards formulating and implementing policies and strategies that are important for maritime safety and security in the Indian Ocean Region. © 2016 National Maritime Foundation.

Liyanage I.K.,Institute for Health Policy | Wickramasinghe K.,University of Oxford | Ratnayake H.E.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Palmer P.,Claremont Graduate University | And 2 more authors.
Substance Abuse | Year: 2013

Objective: This study aimed to understand the usage patterns and correlates of illicit drug use among schoolchildren in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among grade 10 and 12 students using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: From the 6000 students selected, 5353(89.22%) responded. Betel chewing with tobacco was seen in 28.48% males and 10.44% females. Substances such as Barbul, Madana Modaka, and cough syrups that are not established as illicit drugs were used as psychoactive substances. Ingredients of some of these compounds are not fully understood or regulated. Prevalence of cannabis use was 3.85% in males and 0.24% in females. Studying nonscience subjects for Advanced Level, doing sports, low academic performance, and peer smoking significantly increased the odds of using one or more substances (P <.05). Conclusions: Many types of illicit substances were used by schoolchildren. More strategies to prevent further aggravation of these behaviors are needed. Constituents of some compounds are not understood and need further evaluation. Recognized high-risk groups can be targets for preventive and cessation programs. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Jayarathne D.G.N.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Jayananda M.K.,University of Colombo
2014 7th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability: "Sharpening the Future with Sustainable Technology", ICIAfS 2014 | Year: 2014

In this paper the development of a Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based general purpose computer to Controller Area Network (CAN) store and forward buffer is being discussed. This buffer will read from the incoming data from the computer as bytes and collect and combine them to form the CAN frame and post it to the CAN network for transmission. In the process of development, CAN message frame architecture, voltage levels and bit coding principles were studied extensively. For the experiments and implementation of the designed buffer a developer board with Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA which has 1920 Configurable Logic Blocks (CLB) was used. Computer to FPGA communications is carried out using RS-232 serial communications. 136 bit long CAN frame is built on the computer and separated to 17 bytes and forwarded to the FPGA. The FPGA assembles it and posts the frame to the network. In this implementation, from the available total, 315 flip flops and 569 look up tables (LUT) were used. From these 443 were used as logic, 126 were used as route through and 1 was used as a shift register. Since the usage of the RS-232 protocol a communication bottleneck makes rise to a delay of 14.1667 ms per frame sent from computer to the FPGA. This delay can be reduced by using Universal Serial Bus (USB) protocols to communicate with the computer. Even though this implementation is for the low speed fault tolerant CAN, speeds can be customized to suit the requirement by varying the frequency of clock ticks, given that the hardware supports such frequencies. As further research this store and forward buffer can be improved to receive acknowledgments from other nodes of the network. © 2014 IEEE.

Senanayake N.P.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Chandrasiri N.S.,Colombo South Teaching Hospital
Sri Lanka Journalof Child Health | Year: 2015

Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Objective: To determine the common bacterial pathogens causing UTI in children less than 12 years old and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at the Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. Method: A prospective study was done by analyzing records of urine samples received at the Department of Microbiology, Colombo South Teaching Hospital, from 1st May 2011 to 30th April 2012. Urine samples were inoculated on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient agar, according to standard operating procedures. The isolates were initially identified by Gram staining and colony characteristics. Gram positive organisms were further identified by catalase, coagulase and bile-aesculin tests. Lactose fermentation or non-lactose fermentation (NLF) of Gram negative organisms was recorded. The NLF isolates were further identified by oxidase, urease and Kleigler Iron Agar tests. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out using the Stokes method. Results: A total of 2620 urine samples was analyzed. Of the 426 (16.3%) pure growths, Gram negative isolates of bacteriuria (>105 colony forming units/ml of urine) and Gram positive isolates of bacteriuria (>104 colony forming units/ml of urine) were found in 264 (62%) and 56 (13.1%) patients respectively. The female: male ratio of the total positive samples was 2.1:1. LF and NLF Coliforms (excluding Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella spp.) were isolated in 142 (33.3%) and 68 (16%) samples respectively. Proteus spp. were isolated in 43 (10.1%) samples 38 (88.4%) of which were identified in males. The sensitivity of LF Coliforms to nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and ampicillin was 83.9%, 57.4% and 11.3% respectively. The sensitivity of NLF Coliforms to nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and ampicillin was 85.3%, 36.8% and 7.4% respectively. Conclusions: Enterobacteriaceae were the predominant pathogens causing UTI in our population and showed high resistance against ampicillin and cephalexin. Proteus infections were predominant in males.

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