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Senanayake N.P.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Chandrasiri N.S.,Colombo South Teaching Hospital
Sri Lanka Journalof Child Health | Year: 2015

Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Objective: To determine the common bacterial pathogens causing UTI in children less than 12 years old and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at the Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Sri Lanka. Method: A prospective study was done by analyzing records of urine samples received at the Department of Microbiology, Colombo South Teaching Hospital, from 1st May 2011 to 30th April 2012. Urine samples were inoculated on Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient agar, according to standard operating procedures. The isolates were initially identified by Gram staining and colony characteristics. Gram positive organisms were further identified by catalase, coagulase and bile-aesculin tests. Lactose fermentation or non-lactose fermentation (NLF) of Gram negative organisms was recorded. The NLF isolates were further identified by oxidase, urease and Kleigler Iron Agar tests. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were carried out using the Stokes method. Results: A total of 2620 urine samples was analyzed. Of the 426 (16.3%) pure growths, Gram negative isolates of bacteriuria (>105 colony forming units/ml of urine) and Gram positive isolates of bacteriuria (>104 colony forming units/ml of urine) were found in 264 (62%) and 56 (13.1%) patients respectively. The female: male ratio of the total positive samples was 2.1:1. LF and NLF Coliforms (excluding Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella spp.) were isolated in 142 (33.3%) and 68 (16%) samples respectively. Proteus spp. were isolated in 43 (10.1%) samples 38 (88.4%) of which were identified in males. The sensitivity of LF Coliforms to nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and ampicillin was 83.9%, 57.4% and 11.3% respectively. The sensitivity of NLF Coliforms to nitrofurantoin, cephalexin and ampicillin was 85.3%, 36.8% and 7.4% respectively. Conclusions: Enterobacteriaceae were the predominant pathogens causing UTI in our population and showed high resistance against ampicillin and cephalexin. Proteus infections were predominant in males.

Jayarathne D.G.N.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Jayananda M.K.,University of Colombo
2014 7th International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability: "Sharpening the Future with Sustainable Technology", ICIAfS 2014 | Year: 2014

In this paper the development of a Field programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based general purpose computer to Controller Area Network (CAN) store and forward buffer is being discussed. This buffer will read from the incoming data from the computer as bytes and collect and combine them to form the CAN frame and post it to the CAN network for transmission. In the process of development, CAN message frame architecture, voltage levels and bit coding principles were studied extensively. For the experiments and implementation of the designed buffer a developer board with Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA which has 1920 Configurable Logic Blocks (CLB) was used. Computer to FPGA communications is carried out using RS-232 serial communications. 136 bit long CAN frame is built on the computer and separated to 17 bytes and forwarded to the FPGA. The FPGA assembles it and posts the frame to the network. In this implementation, from the available total, 315 flip flops and 569 look up tables (LUT) were used. From these 443 were used as logic, 126 were used as route through and 1 was used as a shift register. Since the usage of the RS-232 protocol a communication bottleneck makes rise to a delay of 14.1667 ms per frame sent from computer to the FPGA. This delay can be reduced by using Universal Serial Bus (USB) protocols to communicate with the computer. Even though this implementation is for the low speed fault tolerant CAN, speeds can be customized to suit the requirement by varying the frequency of clock ticks, given that the hardware supports such frequencies. As further research this store and forward buffer can be improved to receive acknowledgments from other nodes of the network. © 2014 IEEE.

Fernando S.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Wijesiriwardana R.,General Electric
9th International Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, ICIIS 2014 | Year: 2015

Uncompressed multimedia (graphics, audio and video) data require significant storage capacity and transmission bandwidth. Despite rapid development in mass-storage density, processor speeds, and performance of digital communication systems, demand for data storage capacity and data-transmission bandwidth outperform the capabilities of available multimedia technologies. The recent developments of multimedia based applications have contributed not only for efficient ways of encoding signals but also in compression of signals. Therefore, the theory of data compression becomes more and more significant for reducing the data redundancy to save more hardware space and transmission bandwidth. In computer science and more specifically in information theory, data compression is the process of encoding information using fewer bits or other information bearing units rather than an un-encoded representation. Data compression is useful because, it cuts down expensive resources such as hard disk space or transmission bandwidth. Image compression is an application of data compression on digital images, as it reduces the computational time and consequently the cost of image storage and transmission. The fundamental concept about image compression is to remove redundant and unimportant data, and at the same time keeping the compressed image with acceptable quality. An important concept in image compression is to select the proper compression technique based on different categories of images, otherwise the data storage methods or transmission bandwidth will not be utilized in an optimized way. The objective of this research is to find an optimized image compression technique based on different categories of images. These categories are defined as high contrast, highly textured, images with a complex background with multiple objects and images with clear cut background with an object. The optimized method for compression was predicted based on the entropy of the image. The first compression technique employed was based on the wavelet transform, where the testing was carried out using three types of wavelet functions namely: Haar, Morlet and Meyer. The second compression method called seam carving, is an image resizing algorithm where, the image can be downscaled or up scaled by removing the seams or establishing number of seams. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. MatLab™ was used for the comparisons. © 2014 IEEE.

Nadugala M.N.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Premaratne P.H.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Goonasekara C.L.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University
Advances in Bioinformatics | Year: 2016

B-cell epitopes on the envelope (E) and premembrane (prM) proteins of dengue virus (DENV) were predicted using bioinformatics tools, BepiPred, Ellipro, and SVMTriP. Predicted epitopes, 32 and 17 for E and prM proteins, respectively, were then characterized for their level of conservations. The epitopes, EP4/E (48-55), epitope number 4 of E protein at amino acids 48-55, EP9/E (165-182), EP11/E (218-233), EP20/E (322-349), EP21/E (326-353), EP23/E (356-365), and EP25/E (380-386), showed a high intraserotype conservancy with very low pan-serotype conservancy, demonstrating a potential target as serotype specific diagnostic markers. EP3 (30-41) located in domain-I and EP26/E (393-409), EP27/E (416-435), EP28/E (417-430) located in the stem region of E protein, and EP8/prM (93-112) from the prM protein have a pan-serotype conservancy higher than 70%. These epitopes indicate a potential use as universal vaccine candidates, subjected to verification of their potential in viral neutralization. EP2/E (16-21), EP5/E (62-123), EP6/E (63-89), EP19/E (310-329), and EP24/E (371-402), which have more than 50% pan-serotype conservancies, were found on E protein regions that are important in host cell attachment. Previous studies further show evidence for some of these epitopes to generate cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, indicating their importance in antiviral strategies for DENV. This study suggests that bioinformatic approaches are attractive first line of screening for identification of linear B-cell epitopes. © 2016 Mahesha N. Nadugala et al.

Senaratne B.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University
Maritime Affairs | Year: 2016

The Indian Ocean covers 20% of the Earth and is ranked as the third largest water body in the world. It has various matters related to maritime affairs which have to be resolved and policies that need to be implemented to ensure maritime safety and security of the littoral countries. In this context, the formulation of a common maritime policy will be beneficial in safeguarding not only the states but also the natural resources in the region. This paper demonstrates that the use of public diplomacy is a beneficial tool in formulating a common maritime policy. It also argues that this tool is useful in influencing public and governments in cooperating towards formulating and implementing policies and strategies that are important for maritime safety and security in the Indian Ocean Region. © 2016 National Maritime Foundation.

Fernando W.C.D.K.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Wickramasuriya S.S.,University of Moratuwa
International Journal of Climatology | Year: 2011

Probable maximum precipitation (PMP) is widely used as an input in rainfall-runoff modelling to estimate probable maximum flood (PMF), which is required for the design of spillways of large dams. In relation to dam safety studies at 32 dam sites, an analysis was done of extreme rainfalls in Sri Lanka, which is influenced by the Asian monsoon system and cyclonic effects. Accordingly, the Hershfield's statistical method, which is one of the recommended procedures of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), was used for estimating PMP. It is also a technique that can be readily used in design office practice. However, it is of significant value and scientific interest to explore what the outcome would have been if the physically based hydro-meteorological procedure had been adopted. For this purpose, long series of annual maximum daily rainfall data from seven stations were analysed. The research shows that the maximum moisture and corresponding wind run or the use of maximum moisture alone are two scenarios, which yield results compatible with the statistical PMP. Although globally there is a tendency to exclude wind maximization, this does not automatically apply to a country like Sri Lanka, which experiences cyclonic rainfall and special attention should be paid to precipitation efficiency. These results are further confirmed by a frequency analysis based on the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution. An approximate value of PMP could be in the order of 2.0-3.0 times the maximum observed daily rainfall. However, this aspect needs further investigation when observed maxima are near PMP storms. © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society.

Wedasinghe N.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Wicramaarchchi R.,University of Kalaniya
1st International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Information and Communication Technology, ICEEICT 2014 | Year: 2014

According to the statistics of the World Health Organization 15 percent of the world population lives with some kind of a disability. This statistic further indicates that 10 percent of the Sri Lankan total population also has some kind of disability. Sri Lanka suffered three decades of civil war. As a result no of disabled people gradually increased. Most of the civilians disadvantage of getting benefits of ICT during that period. As a result the war ending in 2009, the government strategies for the future were directed more on the Development of the country. Sri Lanka ICT literacy rate was increases 8% in 2005. It was increases up to 40 % in 2013. Government focuses to be 75 percent by the year 2015. The motivation behind this research is to overcome disability digital divide in Sri Lanka and facilitate more opportunities for them to enjoy in the digital world. The objective of this study is to propose a Web, Mobile and Computer related ICT model to bridge the disability digital divide gap in Sri Lanka and improve the quality of life of the differently abled community in Sri Lanka. This study involved Literature survey, and many different data gathering techniques mainly group discussions, interviews and site visiting more than 107 samples were interviewed to propose the model. Sri Lankan Participants for this study were inclusive of informal interviews with different communities, different disabled categories and different geographical locations. Study findings were indicated that most of the Sri Lankan differently abled community is not aware and not benefited from globally available modern technologies available for this community. This model is basically proposed based on the initial study has done in phase one to eliminate Disability Digital Divide in Sri Lanka and this paper is a revised model proposed by the same author. This new model includes guidelines to eliminate categories under disability digital divide in Web services, Mobile devises, Computer devises. This paper further proposes to consider the areas in ICT to be considered and the responsible authorities and stakeholders who need to take the initiation to eliminate the disability digital divide in Sri Lanka. © 2014 IEEE.

Ye C.,Wayne State University | Bandara W.M.M.S.,Wayne State University | Bandara W.M.M.S.,General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University | Greenberg M.L.,Wayne State University
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Background: Regulation of inositol metabolism is crucial for cellular functions. Results: Inositol pyrophosphate-deficient cells exhibit defective inositol biosynthesis. Protein levels of the inositol pyrophosphate biosynthetic enzyme Kcs1 are dynamically altered in response to inositol. Conclusion: INO1 transcription and inositol biosynthesis are regulated by modulation of inositol pyrophosphate synthesis. Significance: Inositol pyrophosphates are novel regulators of biosynthesis of inositol and inositol phospholipids. Although inositol pyrophosphates have diverse roles in phosphate signaling and other important cellular processes, little is known about their functions in the biosynthesis of inositol and phospholipids. Here, we show that KCS1, which encodes an inositol pyrophosphate kinase, is a regulator of inositol metabolism. Deletion of KCS1, which blocks synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates on the 5-hydroxyl of the inositol ring, causes inositol auxotrophy and decreased intracellular inositol and phosphatidylinositol. These defects are caused by a profound decrease in transcription of INO1, which encodes myo-inositol-3- phosphate synthase. Expression of genes that function in glycolysis, transcription, and protein processing is not affected in kcs1Δ. Deletion of OPI1, the INO1 transcription repressor, does not fully rescue INO1 expression in kcs1Δ. Both the inositol pyrophosphate kinase and the basic leucine zipper domains of KCS1 are required for INO1 expression. Kcs1 is regulated in response to inositol, as Kcs1 protein levels are increased in response to inositol depletion. The Kcs1-catalyzed production of inositol pyrophosphates from inositol pentakisphosphate but not inositol hexakisphosphate is indispensable for optimal INO1 transcription. We conclude that INO1 transcription is fine-tuned by the synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates, and we propose a model in which modulation of Kcs1 controls INO1 transcription by regulating synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

PubMed | University of the West of England, University of Liverpool and General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics | Year: 2016

Inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome may present in a similar manner. Measuring faecal calprotectin concentration is often recommended to rule out inflammatory bowel disease, however, there are no tests to positively diagnose irritable bowel syndrome and invasive tests are still used to rule out other pathologies.To investigate a platform technology for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome based on faecal gas.The platform technology is composed of a gas chromatography column coupled to a metal oxide gas sensor (OdoReader) and a computer algorithm. The OdoReader separates the volatile compounds from faecal gas and the computer algorithm identifies resistance patterns associated with specific medical conditions and builds classification models. This platform was applied to faecal samples from 152 patients: 33 patients with active inflammatory bowel disease; 50 patients with inactive inflammatory bowel disease; 28 patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 41 healthy donors (Control).The platform classified samples with accuracies from 75% to 100% using rigorous validation schemes: namely leave-one-out cross-validation, 10-fold cross-validation, double cross-validation and their Monte Carlo variations. The most clinically important findings, after double cross-validation, were the accuracy of active Crohns disease vs. irritable bowel syndrome (87%; CI 84-89%) and irritable bowel syndrome vs. controls (78%; CI 76-80%). These schemes provide an estimate of out-of-sample predictive accuracy for similar populations.This is the first description of an investigation for the positive diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, and for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease.

PubMed | General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University and Ministry of Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Asia-Pacific journal of public health | Year: 2016

A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 275 and 760 randomly selected senior officers (SOs) and managerial assistants (MAs) aged between 30 and 60 years. Sum of scores of efforts, rewards, and overcommitment and effort-reward ratio assessed job stress. Blood pressure was measured and classified using JNC-7 guidelines. The response rates of SOs and MAs were 98.9% and 97.2%, respectively. The prevalence of job stress based on high effort-rewards imbalance among SOs and MAs was 74.6% and 80.5%, respectively. The prevalence of overcommitment among SOs and MAs was 35.3% and 29%, respectively. Statistically significant differences (P = .05) were observed between the prevalence of effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment among SOs and MAs. Multivariate analysis indicated effort-reward imbalance (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-7.4), high efforts (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.2-5.3), and overcommitment (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.1-5.6) were significantly associated with hypertension among SOs. Similarly, effort-reward imbalance and high efforts increased the risk of hypertension by 2-fold (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.2) and 3-fold (OR = 3.02; 95% CI = 1.9-4.8), respectively, among the MAs. A significant number of administrators are afflicted by job stress, and job stress was significantly associated with hypertension.

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