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The retrieval of surface reflectance information from the same single pixel of the Hyperion image atmospherically corrected by using image-based [internal average relative reflectance (IARR), log residuals, and flat field] and radiative transfer model (RTM)-based [the fast line-of-sight atmospheric analysis of spectral hypercubes (FLAASH) and the Atmospheric and Topographic Correction 2 (ATCOR-2)] approaches and the spectral feature characteristics of this information were quantitatively and comparatively examined based on measured ground spectral reflectance data. The spectral features quantitative analysis results of the reflectance data showed that spectral reflectances that are suitable and best fitting to the ground spectral reflectances which were obtained from the pixels of FLAASH, ATCOR-2, and flat field-corrected images, respectively. The retrieval of surface reflectance from the FLAASH-corrected image pixels, in general, produced high scores in spectral parameter analyses. Of the image-based approaches, only in flat field-derived reflectance data, results were obtained which are high and nearest to those of RTM and ground spectral reflectance data. Generally, low scores obtained in the spectral parameter analyses of the surface reflectance values retrieved from single pixels of IARR and log residuals-corrected images showed the results that fit worst to the measured ground spectral reflectance. © 2013 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.


Oztan N.S.,General Sensing | Suzen M.L.,Middle East Technical University
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Evaporate minerals are important industrial raw materials that have been used in diverse industries for many years. As one of the most extensively used evaporate minerals, gypsum is an important raw material in the construction, agriculture, textile, dentistry and chemical industries, resulting in a massive increase in demand of these minerals in recent years. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the responses of common remote sensing mapping techniques and further develop some of them while evaluating their success in well-known gypsum outcrops using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. The region selected for the test area was Ankara Bala, which has gypsum outcrops with operational mines mapped in detailed studies by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA). The methods of band ratioing (BR), decorrelation stretch (DS), feature-oriented principal component analysis (FOPCA) and thermal indices were tested to map the mineral gypsum. For the BR method, the ratio 4:9, for DS the Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composite 1-4-8, for FOPCA Principal Component (PC) 3 and for thermal infrared (TIR) indices the previously known Quartz Index (QI) modified as the Sulfate Index (SI) were found to be successful in general terms for evaporate mapping. For an absolute accuracy assessment the results of these methods were checked in the field and, from the areas where the results showed common anomalies, samples were taken for field spectrometry analyses and X-ray analyses. For a relative accuracy assessment all of the results were compared with each other to evaluate the differences and their successes. We found that all of the methods were successful in mapping evaporates; however, despite its lower spatial resolution, the TIR data from ASTER when used as the SI yielded a more refined result than the other methods. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


San B.T.,General Sensing | Suzen M.L.,Middle East Technical University
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

Hyperspectral remote sensing is a powerful tool in discriminating lithological units and in preparation of mineral maps. Hyperion is a space borne sensor of Hyperspectral imagery having 220 channels within the 400 nm to 2500 nm wavelength range. Although the technical specifications of the sensor are quite high, in the operational stage there exist many nuisances like atmosphere. The presence of atmosphere with aerosols and gases alters the reflected signal from the surface resulting in a decrease in the quality of the Hyperion image. In order to obtain accurate and reliable results, atmospheric correction must be carried out for Hyperion data. There are many atmospheric correction algorithms based on MODTRAN or LOWTRAN in literature and/or in commercial use. In this study, the Atmospheric CORrection Now (ACORN), the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Spectral Hypercubes (FLAASH), and ATmospheric CORrection (ATCOR 2-3) atmospheric correction algorithms were tested for atmospheric correction of Hyperion data. Test site is located on Central Anatolia having sparse vegetation cover. Both the obtained resultant images and the whole spectral signatures from the field samples were compared with cross correlations of whole spectra and specific wavelengths in spectral domain. Despite the compromises in different wavelength regions ACORN is found to be a slightly better corrector algorithm for natural earth materials through lithological and mineralogical mapping needs.


Kayadibi O.,General Sensing
RAST 2011 - Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies | Year: 2011

After Landsat satellite launched in 1972, multispectral satellite images (Landsat TM/ETM+, Aster, ALI, Spot, Ikonos, Quickbird etc.) were used in many disciplines such as geology, environment, hydrogeology and ore deposits, etc. For several decades, imaging spectroscopy or hypespektral images are used with an increasing importance in many applications and various disciplines of geology. Imaging Spectroscopy is one of the new and fast growing technologies in remote sensing. © 2011 IEEE.


Trademark
General Sensing | Date: 2012-01-03

A system comprised of electronic wireless sensors and devices, namely, body-worn electronically encoded wireless badges, wireless digital transceiver beacons placed in the hospital environment, wireless electronic base station transceivers connected to an electronic network, badge battery chargers, and wireless electric sensors embedded in and attached to hand hygiene product dispensers, that together aggregate information from and provide feedback to healthcare institutions, professionals, and patients through an Internet service and physical indicators.


Trademark
General Sensing | Date: 2012-01-03

A system comprised of electronic wireless sensors and devices, namely, body-worn electronically encoded wireless badges, wireless digital transceiver beacons placed in the hospital environment, wireless electronic base station transceivers connected to an electronic network, badge battery chargers, and wireless electric sensors embedded in and attached to hand hygiene product dispensers, that together aggregate information from and provide feedback to healthcare institutions, professionals, and patients through an Internet service and physical indicators.


G

Trademark
General Sensing | Date: 2012-01-03

A system comprised of electronic wireless sensors and devices, namely, body-worn electronically encoded wireless badges, wireless digital transceiver beacons placed in the hospital environment, wireless electronic base station transceivers connected to an electronic network, badge battery chargers, and wireless electric sensors embedded in and attached to hand hygiene product dispensers, that together aggregate information from and provide feedback to healthcare institutions, professionals, and patients through an Internet service and physical indicators.


News Article | August 22, 2014
Site: www.wired.com

According to the Centers for Disease Control, almost 75,000 patients died last year from healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in the United States. It’s consistently ranked as one of ten leading causes of death. HAIs are defined as infections that patients contract after they’ve been admitted—that is, the patient arrives at the hospital with one ailment, and then picks up a new infection during his stay. Those preventable infections cost hospitals around $30 billion in added costs a year. The culprit is usually unwashed hands. Studies vary, but show that on average hospital workers only wash their hands between 10 and 50 percent of the time they enter or exit a patient room. That number, of course, is supposed to be 100 percent. When harried hospital workers forget to wash their hands and move from, say, a sick patient to a surgery, bacteria can travel with them. Unfortunately, “the problem is invisible,” says Brent Nibarger, chief client officer at Biovigil Hygiene Technologies. “The bacteria and things that get transported, you can’t see it. We often say if the bugs glowed orange or green or yellow you could solve this more powerfully.” Bacteria might not emit flashes of color, but a gadget can. This summer, Biovigil rolled out their first product: a sensor-laden electronic badge that uses traffic-light language—red, yellow, and green flashing lights—to hold doctors accountable for hand-hygiene. To use the Biovigil system, hospital workers clip the two-ounce electronic badge onto their pockets. The badge can detect infrared sensors that Biovigil installs in patient rooms, so that every time the doctor or nurse in question walks in or out of a new room, the badge knows. The hospital worker will sanitize his hands, either with Purell or soap and water, and hold one hand near the badge. Chemical sensors in the Biovigil gadget will detect clean hands, and cue a green light. If the doctor delays the process, the badge turns yellow. If they downright ignore it, it glares red. “A five-year-old can understand it, and a 90-year-old patient understands it. Everyone understands traffic light simplicity,” Nibarger says. “Once you wear this on your chest and have your first patient interaction it instantly changes the accountability and behavior, because no one is going to be running around with a red badge, except in rare circumstances.” Depending on your attitude, that interaction is either a friendly nudge in the right direction or a heavy dose of shame. It’s also what most distinguishes Biovigil from a competitor that also launched at this summer’s Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology conference in Anaheim, California. General Sensing’s MedSense is one of myriad new products and initiatives aimed at getting numbers up for hand-hygiene compliance. (The makers of Purell have even introduced tracking technology for soap dispensers. However, Nibarger says wall mounted solutions aren’t ideal because, “if you slow down the natural work flow pattern, when you’re doing this 140 times per shift, users will have a very hard time adopting a solution.”) Like Biovigil, General Sensing uses a clip-on device to keep tabs on whether doctors wash their hands or not. Instead of chemical sensors, the badge interacts with mobile stations—like bottles of hand sanitizer rigged with sensors—negating the need for a system installation. If a doctor doesn’t use the hand sanitizatizer, General Sensing simply buzzes them. No lights, no visibility for the patient. Like Biovigil, General Sensing can collect a ton of data on which hospital workers are washing their hands, and when and where they’re doing it. Biovigil is more emphatic about making the interaction visible. “If you’re not solving the problem at the point of care, and not communicating that the problem is being solved to patients, family members, coworkers in a tangible way, you’re not going to see the impact you’re expecting,” Nibarger says. Indeed, being watched is a powerful motivator: an article in The New York Times reported that when workers at the North Shore University Hospital on Long Island, New York, knew they were being watched, hand-washing compliance rates shot up from 10 percent to 88 percent. Biovigil’s badges float from hospital worker to hospital worker as they change shifts. To activate a badge, staff members plug in a modified USB key encoded with their identification number. Later, when the badge charges at a docking station, it downloads the comings and goings of that particular worker into a system. Not the minutiae of workers’ whereabouts—Biovigil isn’t GPS-enabled—but a log of hand-washing activity and timed visits to patient rooms. For hospitals, that data could answer some big questions: “Are there more or less interactions from the daytime hours to the nighttime hours? More or less from weekend shifts to weekday? Do isolation patients get more or less care than non-isolation patients? What is the average time that nurses versus ancillary departments versus doctors interact with patients?” Nibarger says. Even though Biovigil is vehemently focused on solving what Nibarger calls “the ‘gel in, gel out,'” problem, it could also become a powerful tool for optimizing workflow. On average, Biovigil costs hospitals $2 to $3 per room, per day. They’re approaching installation like a cable company (minus the infuriating wait times, of course): for a blanket fee, Biovigil installs the infrared sensors and supplies hospitals with the hardware and training.


Lytro won’t be keeping its fancy light-field camera technology to itself much longer. Today, the company announced that it’s releasing its first Lytro developer kit (LDK) enabling outside developers to use Lytro’s technology and adapt it in new ways. Lytro’s first four partners in its new developer program are NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, General Sensing, the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (part of the Department of Defense), and an undisclosed “major industrial partner that develops a range of products for government applications.” Lytro’s camera technology is special in that it allows viewers to change images’ focal points and perspective after the photo has been taken. In the spring, Lytro introduced its Illum camera, perhaps the first one that can actually be used by professional photographers as we noted in our review. The kit itself is a mix of software and hardware. It comes with a lens, a sensor, image processing software, and rendering software with a Python API. “It’s a whole programmable camera system in a Lego building block system,” said Lytro chief executive Jason Rosenthal in an interview with VentureBeat. Although it’s only opening its technology to outside developers now, Rosenthal said that Lytro has always had a lot of interest from other organizations looking to use its technology, so in a way, today’s move was always in the company’s plan. Although Lytro’s technology could be used in an infinite amount of ways, the company is foreseeing that scientific and medical imaging, defense and security, and video and film production will first tap into its light-field tech. Eventually, Rosenthal said, it will likely reach consumer devices such as smartphones and cars. And while Lytro is first working with select developer partners, it will open up its tools to all kinds of developers, from large organizations to startups, and even individual photographers who want to integrate it into their tools with just a little bit of programming and tinkering. “Cameras should work much more like smartphones work, and you should be able to program them how you want them,” Rosenthal said. As for how this will impact Lytro as a company, Rosenthal said that the company has no plans to veer away from being a product company at its core. While making its technology available to other developers is certainly part of its goals, it still plans to continue to develop its own products as its main focus.

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