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Negro-Calduch E.,Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO | Elfadaly S.,General Organization for Veterinary Services | Tibbo M.,Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO | Ankers P.,Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO | Bailey E.,Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations FAO
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

In the current situation of endemicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in Egypt, improving the biosecurity of poultry production has become essential to the progressive reduction the incidence of the disease. A significant proportion of the Egyptian commercial poultry system consists of small-scale poultry producers operating with low to minimal biosecurity measures. An investigation was conducted into the level of adoption of standard biosecurity measures of the small-scale commercial chicken growers, including both farm- and home-based commercial production, input suppliers and other actors along the meat chicken value chain in Fayoum, Egypt. The study which used direct observations and group discussions of nearly 160 participants and structured interviews with 463 respondents, assessed biosecurity implementation to improve management practices and ultimately to control and prevent highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). The survey found that overall, biosecurity measures are rarely implemented in small-scale commercial poultry production units. Compliance with recommended biosecurity practices did not greatly vary from home-based to farm-based commercial production. Furthermore, serious risk practices were identified, such as unsafe disposal of poultry carcasses and potential disease spread posed by poor biosecurity measures implemented during vaccination. HPAI control measures have been ineffective due to limited cooperation between public and private sector, aggravated by the unpopular measures taken in the event of outbreaks and no compensation paid for incurred losses. Outreach and biosecurity awareness raising initiatives should be specifically developed for small-scale producers with the objective of improving general poultry management and thus preventing HPAI and other poultry diseases. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mahmoud K.G.M.,National Research Center of Egypt | El-Sokary A.A.E.,General Organization for Veterinary Services | Abdel-Ghaffar A.E.,Benha University | Abou El-Roos M.E.A.,Benha University | Ahmed Y.F.,National Research Center of Egypt
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2015

This study was conducted to determine chromatin integrity and DNA damage by DNA electrophoresis and comet assays of buffalo fresh and frozen semen. Semen samples were collected from four buffalo bulls and evaluated after freezing for semen motility, viability, sperm abnormalities, chromatin integrity and DNA damage. A significant variation was found in semen parameters after thawing. Highly significant differences (P<0.001) in chromatin integrity were observed between fresh and frozen semen. For the fresh semen, there was no significant difference between the bulls for chromatin integrity; however, a significant variation (P<0.05) was detected in their frozen semen. No DNA fragmentation was observed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The percentage of sperm with damaged DNA detected by comet assay differed significantly between fresh and frozen semen. A significant negative correlation was recorded between motility and DNA damage (r=-0.68, P<0.05). Sperm abnormalities and DNA fragmentation were significantly positively correlated (r=0.59, P<0.05). In conclusion, DNA damage evaluation can provide reassurance about genomic normalcy and guide the development of improved methods of selecting spermatozoa with intact DNA to be used in artificial insemination.

Hegazy Y.M.,Kafr El Sheikh University | Molina-Flores B.,Spanish Agency for International Cooperation and Development | Molina-Flores B.,Regional Animal Health Center for North Africa | Shafik H.,General Organization for Veterinary Services | And 2 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Brucellosis is endemic among humans and ruminant in Egypt and recent reports suggest that its incidence may be increasing. In this study we describe the frequency of brucellosis among different ruminant species in Upper Egypt and its spatial distribution using the data generated by a large-scale control campaign undertaken between 2005 and 2008. A total of 120,090 individual animals of different ruminant species were tested during the campaign. The true proportions of brucellosis were estimated as 0.79% (CI: 0.71%-0.87%), 0.13% (CI: 0.08%-0.18%), 1.16% (1.05%-1.27%) and 0.44% (0.34%-0.54%) among cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goats respectively. We estimated that 0.2% (CI: 0.16%-0.23%) of households in the study area keep at least one seropositive animal. Spatial autocorrelation of the proportions of seropositive households and seropositive animals was assessed using Global Univariate Moran's I and Local Univariate LISA. These analyses showed that the distribution of seropositive animals has considerable spatial heterogeneity with clustering in the northern governorates of the study area. Our results show that brucellosis is widespread and heterogeneously distributed in Upper Egypt. At the current level of available resources it is very unlikely that test and slaughter could be implemented with the intensity needed to be effective and other control measures that could replace or complement the test and slaughter policy in place should be considered. Also, this study illustrates some of the challenges faced by bilateral projects that have to accommodate an externally funded intervention with an ongoing national official disease control program. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Kilany W.,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations | Kilany W.,Egyptian Animal Production Research Institute | Dauphin G.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Selim A.,Egyptian Animal Production Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2014

The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 106median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended. © 2014, © 2014 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

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