The Penn State Research Foundation and General Opto Solutions, LLC | Date: 2016-07-27
We provide methods and apparatus for preparing crystalline-clad and crystalline core optical fibers with minimal or no breakage by minimizing the influence of thermal stress during a liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) process as well as the fiber with precisely controlled number of modes propagated in the crystalline cladding and crystalline core fiber via precisely controlling the diameter of crystalline fiber core with under-saturated LPE flux. The resulting crystalline cladding and crystalline core optical fibers are also reported.
Wang C.,Pennsylvania State University |
Chang Y.-C.,Pennsylvania State University |
Yao J.,Pennsylvania State University |
Luo C.,General Opto Solutions, LLC |
And 4 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012
A type of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by interfered femtosecond laser created nanostructures on Cu metal is presented. It is found out that finer and more uniform nanostructures (with an average feature size 100 nm or smaller) can be created on Cu metal by interfered femtosecond illumination with a phase mask. Significantly enhanced Raman signal (with an enhancement factor around 863) can be realized by using the nanostructured Cu substrate created by the interfered femtosecond laser illumination. The experimentally measured enhancement factor agrees relatively well with the theoretical analyses. Since the nanostructures can be inscribed in real time and at remote locations by the femtosecond laser inscription, the proposed SERS can be particularly useful for the standoff detection of chemicals. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.
Yin S.S.,Pennsylvania State University |
Wang C.,Pennsylvania State University |
Zhu W.,Pennsylvania State University |
Yao J.,Pennsylvania State University |
And 3 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2014
A new type of LED, single chip super broadband InGaN/GaN LED is presented in this paper. The LED is composed of an InGaN/GaN quantum well layer deposited on the nanostructured sapphire substrate, inscribed by femtosecond laser ablation. The super broadband emission is enabled due to the large variation of indium composition in a small local area so that different wavelengths can be emitted over a small area and the summation of these different emission wavelengths forms super broadband emission, which covers the entire visible spectral range. The result of this paper represents a major technological advance in white light LED lighting because it enables single chip white LED lighting without the need of phosphor down converter that can significantly improve the efficiency without the Stokes loss and reduce the cost. © 2014 Optical Society of America.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.67K | Year: 2012
The objective of this SBIR Phase I effort is to develop an innovative fabrication method to produce high IR transmission and hardness aspheric window, which includes following major efforts: First, a unique composite ceramic material will be developed, which not only is highly transparent over a broad visible-to-IR spectral range (compatible to ZnS and CaF2), but also has a much higher strength and hardness than that of ZnS and CaF2. Second, a novel low cost manufacturing process will be developed, which can be used to fabricate the complex shape aspheric window based on our proposed transparent composite ceramics at low cost. Third, the performance of the fabricated aspheric composite ceramic window will be thoroughly investigated. The major optical, thermal, and mechanical properties such as transmittance, refractive index, mechanical strength, the thermal expansion coefficients will be quantitatively measured. A 3"reagent grade hyper-hemispherical dome will be fabricated at the Phase I stage, which will lay down a solid foundation to fabricate full size 12"dome at the Phase II stage. We will also actively pursue the commercialization of our unique IR transmitting aspheric window for the following killer applications such as domes, transparent armor, broadband sensors, et al.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.66K | Year: 2015
In this project, we will grow an innovative, coilable and true double-clad crystalline YAG fiber and investigate its application to high energy lasers. The grown fiber will have all the required properties: single transversal mode operation, coilable fiber (to~100 cm), low propagation loss (
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 729.64K | Year: 2012
The objective of this SBIR Phase II effort is to grow larger size (50 mm diameter x 25 mm thick or larger) single crystals of aluminum oxynitride (AlON) and aluminum nitride (AlN) by refining and optimizing the rapid and contamination free growth method developed at the Phase I stage. The major properties of the single crystals will be quantitatively characterized and evaluated. The crystals should be at the single crystal phase, have a high linear transmittance (85 % or higher) over the entire UV-VIS-IR spectral range, and are optically isotropic. Elastic constants and dielectric properties of larger size samples (50 mm diameter x 25 mm thick, developed at the Phase II stage) will be measured by ultrasonic pulse echo technique and compared with the data obtained from the small samples (~ 2 mm cube) measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). Phase II effort also includes investigating the killer applications of these unique single crystals and commercializing them such as (1) providing the critical technical data for studying the materials in extreme dynamic environments (such as transparent armors), (2) broadband, high strength optical windows and domes, (3) high power electronic substrates, and (4) robust, broad temperature range actuators and sensors.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 79.79K | Year: 2010
The primary objective of this proposed project is to develop an ultrafast speed, polarization independent optical aperture gating device, which can be conveniently integrated into a high sensitivity photodetector so that the daytime performance of the LIDAR can be dramatically improved. To realize this goal, we will develop an innovative tunable photonic nanostructure, which can offer following unprecedented performances: (1) polarization independent operation, (2) less than 10 ns switching speed, (3) less than < 2 dB insertion loss, (4) OD 4 or better extinction ratio, (5) high out-of-band rejection, (6) large field of view (+/- 40 deg), (7) 1 KHz or higher repetition rate, and (8) compact size and small footprint. At the phase I stage, we will conduct both the theoretical and the experimental feasibility study of the proposed approach. A bench-top experimental system (with an aperture size 1 square millimeter or larger) will be fabricated and tested. At the phase II stage, we will collaborate with a major commercial partner in this field to develop a ready-to-use gating prototype device with an aperture size (1 square centimeter or larger) and integrate this device into a high sensitivity photodetector (e.g., a photomultiplier tube).
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 716.58K | Year: 2010
In this SBIR Phase II project, first, we will develop a ready-to-use unconventional spatially coherent, wavelength selectable, high average power, broadband visible-IR source by leveraging the very promising and encouraging proof-of-concept results achieved at the Phase I stage. Such kind of source is realized by employing (1) a tunable, 3-dimensional, nanoengineered, high IR transmittance and high laser damage threshold IR waveguide, (2) a highly compact, and high average power pumping source, and (3) a novel optical configuration. Second, we will apply this innovative source to the following critically needed army applications: (1) highly effective and robust electro-optic (EO) active countermeasures, (2) long range standoff sensors that can be used to identify the chemical compositions of the remote target and surrounding environment in real time, and (3) highly effective broadband IR imagers and LADAR seekers that can have significantly increased penetration of fog/cloud/smoke and provide the information on both the geometric shape and the material composition of the target so that a higher target recognition accuracy can be achieved. Finally, we will commercialize this technology by pursuing both the military and civilian usages.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Army | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 119.45K | Year: 2010
In this project, we will develop and demonstrate an innovative process for growing large size single crystal aluminum oxynitride (AlON). The proposed process is not only contamination-free but also preventing volatilization and maintaining the stoichiometry of the sample materials. This is particularly important to grow large size AlON single crystal because it can be decomposed at the melting temperature without proper environmental control. Furthermore, it is a rapid growing process so that it can be scaled up for highly efficient and low-cost production of large size AlON single crystals. AlON single crystal samples with all the required properties ( e.g., > 2 cubic millimeters, 80% visible in-line transmittance, stoichiometric composition, optically isotropic single crystals., and the acceptable cubic elastic constants) will be grown at the Phase I stage. A higher quality (e.g., 85% visible in-line transmittance) and larger size (50 millimeter diameter x 25 mm millimeter thick) will be developed at the Phase II stage by refining and optimizing the growing method and procedures developed at the Phase I stage.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 99.65K | Year: 2010
The primary objective of this proposed research effort is to develop an innovative active photonic metamaterials, which will have extraordinarily large equivalent nonlinear transmission behavior (i.e., the stronger the incoming the light, the larger the attenuation coefficient will be). Thus, a novel all-optical (or called passive) optical switch that has unprecedented performance can be achieved, which offers the following unique capabilities: (1) extremely broadband operation (e.g., 0.4 – 3.0 microns), (2) polarization independent operation, (3) a high blocking rate (OD 3 or better), (4) a high linear transmission (better than 50%) over a broad bandwidth (0.4 – 3.0 microns), and (5) a fast response time (~ ns). A proof-of-concept feasibility study will be conducted at the Phase I stage, which includes (1) synthesizing the proposed active photonic metamaterials with an aperture size (1 square millimeter or larger), and (2) fabricating a proof-of-concept all-optical switch using the synthesized metamaterials, (3) testing and evaluating the performances of the switching (including the bandwidth, the switching speed, the extinction ratio, et al). At the Phase II stage, we will develop the production-scalable process to fabricate the ready-to-use prototype of the proposed optical switch device based on the accomplishments of the Phase I effort. BENEFIT: The successful completion of this proposed research effort represents a major technology breakthrough in the area of optical switches because it can offer such an extremely broadband operation from visible to infrared (IR). It will have a great impact on both the military applications (such as adaptive optics, laser communications, optical/spatial image filtration, et al) and civilian applications (such as telecommunications, biological imaging, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, et al).