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Huang Y.-F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Poland J.A.,Kansas State University | Wight C.P.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Jackson E.W.,General Mills Crop Biosciences | Tinker N.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Advances in next-generation sequencing offer high-throughput and cost-effective genotyping alternatives, including genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Results have shown that this methodology is efficient for genotyping a variety of species, including those with complex genomes. To assess the utility of GBS in cultivated hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L.), seven bi-parental mapping populations and diverse inbred lines from breeding programs around the world were studied. We examined technical factors that influence GBS SNP calls, established a workflow that combines two bioinformatics pipelines for GBS SNP calling, and provided a nomenclature for oat GBS loci. The high-throughput GBS system enabled us to place 45,117 loci on an oat consensus map, thus establishing a positional reference for further genomic studies. Using the diversity lines, we estimated that a minimum density of one marker per 2 to 2.8 cM would be required for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and GBS markers met this density requirement in most chromosome regions. We also demonstrated the utility of GBS in additional diagnostic applications related to oat breeding. We conclude that GBS is a powerful and useful approach, which will have many additional applications in oat breeding and genomic studies. © 2014 Huang et al. Source


Brown A.F.,North Carolina State University | Yousef G.G.,North Carolina State University | Chebrolu K.K.,North Carolina State University | Byrd R.W.,North Carolina State University | And 8 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2014

Key message A high-resolution genetic linkage map ofB. oleraceawas developed from aB. napusSNP array. The work will facilitate genetic and evolutionary studies inBrassicaceae. A broccoli population, VI-158 × BNC, consisting of 150 F2:3 families was used to create a saturated Brassica oleracea (diploid: CC) linkage map using a recently developed rapeseed (Brassica napus) (tetraploid: AACC) Illumina Infinium single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The map consisted of 547 non-redundant SNP markers spanning 948.1 cM across nine chromosomes with an average interval size of 1.7 cM. As the SNPs are anchored to the genomic reference sequence of the rapid cycling B. oleracea TO1000, we were able to estimate that the map provides 96 % coverage of the diploid genome. Carotenoid analysis of 2 years data identified 3 QTLs on two chromosomes that are associated with up to half of the phenotypic variation associated with the accumulation of total or individual compounds. By searching the genome sequences of the two related diploid species (B. oleracea and B. rapa), we further identified putative carotenoid candidate genes in the region of these QTLs. This is the first description of the use of a B. napus SNP array to rapidly construct high-density genetic linkage maps of one of the constituent diploid species. The unambiguous nature of these markers with regard to genomic sequences provides evidence to the nature of genes underlying the QTL, and demonstrates the value and impact this resource will have on Brassica research. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Oliver R.E.,General Mills Crop Biosciences | Tinker N.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Lazo G.R.,Albany Research Center | Chao S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 33 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. Source

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