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Christman M.C.,University of Florida | Boileau T.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Jonnalagadda S.S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Thielecke F.,Cereal Partners Worldwide
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The intake of whole-grain (WG) foods by adolescents is reported to be approximately one-third the recommended intake of 48 g/d. This 6-wk randomized interventional study determined the effect of replacing grains within the diet with refined-grain (RG; n = 42) orWG (n = 41) foods/d on gastrointestinal and immune health in adolescents (aged 12.7 ± 0.1 y). A variety of grain-based foods were delivered weekly to participants and their families. Participants were encouraged to eat 3 different kinds of study foods (e.g., bread, cereals, snacks)/d with goals of 0 g/d (RG) and 80 g/d (WG). Stool samples were obtained during the prebaseline and final weeks to measure bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using qPCR. Stool frequency was recorded daily. Blood was drawn at baseline and at final visits for immune markers. Across groups, total-grain intake increased by one serving. The intake ofWGwas similar at baseline (18±3 g) between groups but increased to 60±5 g in the WGgroup and decreased to 4±1 g in the RG group. Fecal bifidobacteria increased frombaselinewith both interventions, but LAB increased (P < 0.05) from baseline [2.4 ± 0.2 log10 genome equivalents (eq)] to wk 6 (3.0 ± 0.2 log10 genome eq) in the WG group but not in the RG group (baseline: 2.9 ± 0.2 log10 genome eq; wk 6: 3.0 ± 0.1 log10 genome eq). There was no difference in stool frequency, serum antioxidant potential, or in vitro LPS-stimulated mononuclear cell production of inflammatory cytokines between groups. However, across both groups the number of daily stools tended to increase (P = 0.08) by 0.0034 stools/gWG or by 0.2 stoolswith 60 gWG, mean antioxidant potential increased by 58%, andmean production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 decreased by 24, 22, and 42%, respectively, between baseline and wk 6. Overall, incorporating either WG or RG foods increased serum antioxidant concentrations and decreased inflammatory cytokine production; however, WG study foods had more of an effect on aspects of gastrointestinal health. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.


PubMed | Cereal Partners Worldwide, Federal University of São Paulo, Secretariat of Education of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo and General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition
Type: | Journal: Appetite | Year: 2016

Breakfast has been related to positive nutrition and health outcomes, but criteria for an optimal composition of this meal are not well established. The aim of this study was to propose a breakfast quality index (BQI) for the Brazilian population, and to describe the relationship between breakfast quality, socio-demographic factors, dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day. BQI was constructed based on individual dietary data of 22,279 breakfast consumers, aged 20+ years from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, a population-based cross-sectional study. The BQI was comprised of food components (cereals, fruit/vegetables, dairy products), and nutrient criteria (energy, fiber, free sugar, saturated fat, calcium and sodium). Mean, percentage and 95% CIs were estimated for variables according to BQI categories. The mean BQI was 4.2, with 71% of individuals falling into medium BQI category and 6% in high category. Individuals in urban areas, in higher categories of income and education and women had higher BQI means. Consumers with high BQI had higher intake of fruits/vegetables and higher breakfast and total daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fiber, total sugar, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate and vitamins B6, A, C, and D, and lower trans fatty acids compared to those in low and medium BQI groups. Promoting a high-quality breakfast may contribute to a better nutrient intake and achievement of daily requirements.


Jonnalagadda S.S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Harnack L.,University of Minnesota | Liu R.H.,Cornell University | McKeown N.,Tufts University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The symposium "Putting the Whole Grain Puzzle Together: Health Benefits Associated with Whole Grains" sponsored by the ASN brought together researchers to review the evidence regarding the health benefits associated with whole grains. Current scientific evidence indicates that whole grains play an important role in lowering the risk of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, and also contribute to body weight management and gastrointestinal health. The essential macro-and micronutrients, along with the phytonutrients present in whole grains, synergistically contribute to their beneficial effects. Current evidence lends credence to the recommendations to incorporate whole grain foods into a healthy diet and lifestyle program. The symposium also highlighted the need for further research to examine the role of whole grain foods in disease prevention and management to gain a better understanding of their mechanisms of action. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


PubMed | General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, Chalmers University of Technology, UK Institute of Food Research and Nestlé
Type: Journal Article | Journal: European journal of nutrition | Year: 2016

Wholegrain (WG) consumption is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but clinical data on inflammation and immune function is either conflicting or limited. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of increasing WG consumption to at least 80 g/day on markers of inflammation and glucose metabolism and on phenotypic and functional aspects of the immune system, in healthy, middle-aged adults with low habitual WG intake.Subjects consumed a diet high in WG (>80 g/day) or low in WG (<16 g/day, refined grain diet) in a crossover study, with 6-week intervention periods, separated by a 4-week washout. Adherence to the dietary regimes was achieved by dietary advice and provision of a range of food products, with compliance verified by analysis of plasma alkylresorcinols (ARs).On the WG intervention, WG consumption reached 168 g/day (P < 0.001), accompanied by an increase in plasma ARs (P < 0.001) and fibre intake (P < 0.001), without affecting other aspects of dietary intake. On the WG arm, there were trends for lower ex vivo activation of CD4(+) T cells and circulating concentrations of IL-10, C-reactive protein, C-peptide, insulin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. The percentage of CD4(+) central memory T cells and circulating levels of adipsin tended to increase during the WG intervention.Despite the dramatic increase in WG consumption, there were no effects on phenotypic or functional immune parameters, markers of inflammation or metabolic markers.


PubMed | Nestlé, University of Reading and General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutrition | Year: 2015

Whole-grain (WG) foods have been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, but studies are inconsistent and effects on cardiovascular risk markers are not clear.The objective of this study was to assess the impact of increasing WG consumption to at least 80 g/d on overall dietary intake, body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, blood glucose, gastrointestinal microbiology, and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy, middle-aged adults with habitual WG intake <24 g/d.Eligible subjects [12 men, 21 women, aged 40-65 y, body mass index (BMI): 20-35 kg/m(2)] were identified through use of food frequency questionnaires and subsequently completed 3-day food diaries (3DFDs) to confirm habitual WG consumption. Subjects consumed diets high in WG (>80 g/d) or low in WG [<16 g/d, refined-grain (RG) diet] in a crossover study with 6-wk intervention periods separated by a 4-wk washout. Adherence was achieved by specific dietary advice and provision of a range of cereal food products. The 3DFDs, diet compliance diaries, and plasma alkylresorcinols were used to verify compliance.During the WG intervention, consumption increased from 28 g/d to 168 g/d (P < 0.001), accompanied by an increase in plasma alkylresorcinols (P < 0.001) and total fiber intake (P < 0.001), without any effect on energy or other macronutrients. Although there were no effects on studied variables, there were trends toward increased 24-h fecal weight (P = 0.08) and reduction in body weight (P = 0.10) and BMI (P = 0.08) during the WG intervention compared with the RG period.A combination of dietary advice and provision of commercially available food items enabled subjects with a low-moderate habitual consumption of WG to substantially increase their WG intake, but there was little effect on blood biochemical markers, body composition, BP, fecal measurements, or gut microbiology. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN36521837.


Slavin J.,University of Minnesota | Tucker M.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Harriman C.,AMD Inc | Jonnalagadda S.S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition
Cereal Foods World | Year: 2013

The AACC International (AACCI) Scientific Advisory Panel and AACCI leaders have identified "Unifying the Grain Health Benefits Message" as one of five scientific opportunity areas. To this end, a two-day thought-leader meeting was held in January 2013 (24). One of the proposed action steps from this meeting was to develop a review of the benefits of grains. This paper is the first in a series of papers that will be published in Cereal Foods World to provide unified grain health messages as part of this scientific initiative. © 2013 AACC International, Inc.


Reicks M.,University of Minnesota | Jonnalagadda S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Albertson A.M.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Joshi N.,General Mills Inc.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2014

Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-<3 oz eq; high, ≥3 oz eq) and total dietary fiber intake among Americans 2 years and older. One-day food intake data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010 (n = 9042) showed that only 2.9% and 7.7% of children/adolescents (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years) consumed at least 3 WG oz eq/d, respectively. For children/adolescents and adults, individuals in the high WG intake group were 59 and 76 times more likely to fall in the third fiber tertile, respectively, compared with those with no-WG intake. Total dietary fiber intake from food sources varied by WG intake group for children/adolescents and adults with more total dietary fiber consumed from ready-to-eat (RTE) and hot cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations. © 2014 The Authors.


Vitaglione P.,University of Naples Federico II | Mennella I.,University of Naples Federico II | Ferracane R.,University of Naples Federico II | Rivellese A.A.,University of Naples Federico II | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Epidemiology associates whole-grain (WG) consumption with several health benefits. Mounting evidence suggests that WG wheat polyphenols play a role in mechanisms underlying health benefits. Objective: The objective was to assess circulating concentration, excretion, and the physiologic role of WG wheat polyphenols in subjects with suboptimal dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Design: A placebo-controlled, parallel-group randomized trial with 80 healthy overweight/obese subjects with low intake of fruit and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle was performed. Participants replaced precise portions of refined wheat (RW) with a fixed amount of selected WG wheat or RW products for 8 wk. At baseline and every 4 wk, blood, urine, feces, and anthropometric and body composition measures were collected. Profiles of phenolic acids in biological samples, plasma markers of metabolic disease and inflammation, and fecal microbiota composition were assessed. Results: WG consumption for 4-8 wk determined a 4-fold increase in serum dihydroferulic acid (DHFA) and a 2-fold increase in fecal ferulic acid (FA) compared with RW consumption (no changes). Similarly, urinary FA at 8 wk doubled the baseline concentration only in WG subjects. Concomitant reduction in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after 8 wk and increased interleukin (IL)-10 only after 4 wk with WG compared with RW (P = 0.04) were observed. No significant change in plasma metabolic disease markers over the study period was observed, but a trend toward lower plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with higher excretion of FA and DHFA in the WG group was found. Fecal FA was associated with baseline low Bifidobacteriales and Bacteroidetes abundances, whereas after WG consumption, it correlated with increased Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes but reduced Clostridium. TNF-α reduction correlated with increased Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. No effect of dietary interventions on anthropometric measurements and body composition was found. Conclusions: WG wheat consumption significantly increased excreted FA and circulating DHFA. Bacterial communities influenced fecal FA and were modified by WG wheat consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01293175. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.


Ortinau L.C.,University of Missouri | Culp J.M.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Hoertel H.A.,University of Missouri | Douglas S.M.,University of Missouri | Leidy H.J.,University of Missouri
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2013

Background: A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160 kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eating. Findings: Thirty-two healthy women (age: 27 ± 2y; BMI: 23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) completed the acute, randomized crossover-design study. On separate days, participants came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch followed by the consumption of the NP (5.0 g protein) or HP (14.0 g protein) yogurt at 3 h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested; ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking led to reductions in hunger and increases in fullness. No differences in post-snack perceived hunger or fullness were observed between the NP and HP yogurt snacks. Dinner was voluntarily requested at approximately 2:40 ± 0:05 h post-snack with no differences between the HP vs. NP yogurts. Ad libitum dinner intake was not different between the snacks (NP: 686 ± 33 kcal vs. HP: 709 ± 34 kcal; p = 0.324). In identifying key factors that predict eating initiation, perceived hunger, fullness, and habitual dinner time accounted for 30% of the variability of time to dinner request (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The additional 9 g of protein contained in the high protein Greek yogurt was insufficient to elicit protein-related improvements in markers of energy intake regulation. © 2013 Ortinau et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Lefevre M.,Utah State University | Jonnalagadda S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2012

The reduction of subclinical inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism to explain the favorable association between whole-grain consumption and reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. This review examines evidence for the effects of whole-grain consumption on markers of subclinical inflammation derived from 13 epidemiological and 5 interventional studies retrieved from a search of the PubMed database. Epidemiological studies provide reasonable support for an association between diets high in whole grains and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. After adjusting for other dietary factors, each serving of whole grains is estimated to reduce CRP concentrations by approximately 7%. In contrast to epidemiological studies, interventional studies do not demonstrate a clear effect of increased whole-grain consumption on CRP or other markers of inflammation. Issues related to insufficient length of intervention, extent of dietary control, population selection, types of whole grains, and lack of a direct anti-inflammatory effect may underlie these discrepant findings. Additional carefully controlled interventional studies are needed to clarify the effects of whole grains on subclinical inflammation. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

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