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Golden Valley, MN, United States

Thielecke F.,Vers | Thielecke F.,Nestle | Jonnalagadda S.S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Jonnalagadda S.S.,Flavours
Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Background: Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that higher whole grain intake is associated with improvements in body weight measures. Evidence from randomized controlled intervention studies is controversial.Objective: To assess the scientific evidence, using a descriptive systematic approach, related to the relationship/effects of whole grain on weight management.Methods: Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were used to search in Medline and Scopus, dating from 1980 to July 2013. Subsequently, 2 researchers assessed independently the resulting abstracts, using hierarchically targeted selection criteria.Results: A moderate body of evidence from epidemiological studies consistently demonstrates that a higher intake of whole grains is associated with lower body weight, BMI, waist circumference, abdominal adiposity, and weight gain. The evidence from intervention studies is, in comparison, limited and less consistent. Current evidence fails to clearly demonstrate that whole grain intake can contribute to weight loss independent of hypocaloric diets. The lack of consistency in intervention studies may partly be explained by heterogeneity in study duration, types and amounts of whole grain foods included, population, and sample sizes.Conclusions: Future epidemiological and intervention studies are needed to address the limitations observed in the current body of evidence, importantly using a consistent definition of whole grain foods, and the amount of whole grains consumed. Furthermore, studies need to be conducted on diets that potentially include single grains. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Lefevre M.,Utah State University | Jonnalagadda S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition
Nutrition Reviews | Year: 2012

The reduction of subclinical inflammation has been suggested as a potential mechanism to explain the favorable association between whole-grain consumption and reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain cancers. This review examines evidence for the effects of whole-grain consumption on markers of subclinical inflammation derived from 13 epidemiological and 5 interventional studies retrieved from a search of the PubMed database. Epidemiological studies provide reasonable support for an association between diets high in whole grains and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. After adjusting for other dietary factors, each serving of whole grains is estimated to reduce CRP concentrations by approximately 7%. In contrast to epidemiological studies, interventional studies do not demonstrate a clear effect of increased whole-grain consumption on CRP or other markers of inflammation. Issues related to insufficient length of intervention, extent of dietary control, population selection, types of whole grains, and lack of a direct anti-inflammatory effect may underlie these discrepant findings. Additional carefully controlled interventional studies are needed to clarify the effects of whole grains on subclinical inflammation. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute. Source

Ampatzoglou A.,University of Reading | Atwal K.K.,University of Reading | Maidens C.M.,University of Reading | Williams C.L.,University of Reading | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Whole-grain (WG) foods have been suggested to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, but studies are inconsistent and effects on cardiovascular risk markers are not clear. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the impact of increasingWGconsumption to at least 80 g/d on overall dietary intake, body composition, blood pressure (BP), blood lipids, blood glucose, gastrointestinal microbiology, and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy, middle-aged adults with habitual WG intake <24 g/d. Methods: Eligible subjects [12 men, 21 women, aged 40-65 y, body mass index (BMI): 20-35 kg/m2] were identified through use of food frequency questionnaires and subsequently completed 3-day food diaries (3DFDs) to confirm habitual WG consumption. Subjects consumed diets high inWG (>80 g/d) or low inWG [<16 g/d, refined-grain (RG) diet] in a crossover study with 6-wk intervention periods separated by a 4-wkwashout. Adherence was achieved by specific dietary advice and provision of a range of cereal food products. The 3DFDs, diet compliance diaries, and plasma alkylresorcinolswere used to verify compliance. Results: During theWG intervention, consumption increased from28 g/d to 168 g/d (P > 0.001), accompanied by an increase in plasma alkylresorcinols (P < 0.001) and total fiber intake (P < 0.001), without any effect on energy or othermacronutrients. Although there were no effects on studied variables, there were trends toward increased 24-h fecal weight (P = 0.08) and reduction in body weight (P = 0.10) and BMI (P = 0.08) during the WG intervention compared with the RG period. Conclusion: A combination of dietary advice and provision of commercially available food items enabled subjects with a low-moderate habitual consumption of WG to substantially increase their WG intake, but there was little effect on blood biochemical markers, body composition, BP, fecal measurements, or gut microbiology. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

Ortinau L.C.,University of Missouri | Culp J.M.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Hoertel H.A.,University of Missouri | Douglas S.M.,University of Missouri | Leidy H.J.,University of Missouri
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2013

Background: A large portion of daily intake comes from snacking. One of the increasingly common, healthier snacks includes Greek-style yogurt, which is typically higher in protein than regular yogurt. This study evaluated whether a 160 kcal higher-protein (HP) Greek-style yogurt snack improves appetite control, satiety, and delays subsequent eating compared to an isocaloric normal protein (NP) regular yogurt in healthy women. This study also identified the factors that predict the onset of eating. Findings: Thirty-two healthy women (age: 27 ± 2y; BMI: 23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) completed the acute, randomized crossover-design study. On separate days, participants came to our facility to consume a standardized lunch followed by the consumption of the NP (5.0 g protein) or HP (14.0 g protein) yogurt at 3 h post-lunch. Perceived hunger and fullness were assessed throughout the afternoon until dinner was voluntarily requested; ad libitum dinner was then provided. Snacking led to reductions in hunger and increases in fullness. No differences in post-snack perceived hunger or fullness were observed between the NP and HP yogurt snacks. Dinner was voluntarily requested at approximately 2:40 ± 0:05 h post-snack with no differences between the HP vs. NP yogurts. Ad libitum dinner intake was not different between the snacks (NP: 686 ± 33 kcal vs. HP: 709 ± 34 kcal; p = 0.324). In identifying key factors that predict eating initiation, perceived hunger, fullness, and habitual dinner time accounted for 30% of the variability of time to dinner request (r = 0.55; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The additional 9 g of protein contained in the high protein Greek yogurt was insufficient to elicit protein-related improvements in markers of energy intake regulation. © 2013 Ortinau et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Jonnalagadda S.S.,General Mills Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition | Harnack L.,University of Minnesota | Liu R.H.,Cornell University | McKeown N.,Tufts University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The symposium "Putting the Whole Grain Puzzle Together: Health Benefits Associated with Whole Grains" sponsored by the ASN brought together researchers to review the evidence regarding the health benefits associated with whole grains. Current scientific evidence indicates that whole grains play an important role in lowering the risk of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, and also contribute to body weight management and gastrointestinal health. The essential macro-and micronutrients, along with the phytonutrients present in whole grains, synergistically contribute to their beneficial effects. Current evidence lends credence to the recommendations to incorporate whole grain foods into a healthy diet and lifestyle program. The symposium also highlighted the need for further research to examine the role of whole grain foods in disease prevention and management to gain a better understanding of their mechanisms of action. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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