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Ciechanowska M.,General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Misztal T.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Przekop F.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences

This review briefly summarizes recent findings on lactotrophs in the pituitary gland and extrapituitary tissues as a no homologous group cell types of different embryonic origin, morphology and biological function. They display a remarkable adaptation to altered physiological condition. Their functions are derived from structural polymorphism, local synthesis, divergent intracellular signaling pathways and target genes. Most of them are heterogenous with respect to basal hormone release, electrical activity and responsiveness to stimulatory/inhibitory factors, depending upon gender and physiological state of animal. The circulating prolactin (PRL) produced by many types of lactotrophs can act in edocrine/paracrine/autocrine manner, respectively as a hormone, growth factor, neurotransmitter or immunoregulator. At the cellular level PRL exerts mitogenic, morphogenic and secretory activity. Numerous factors of the central and peripheral origin are involved in the mechanism regulating PRL secretion, causing an increase or decrease of the hormone concentration in the circulation. The certain feedback mechanism keep the pituitary lactotrophs to be not overactive. Source

Ciechanowska M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ciechanowska M.,General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Lapot M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Malewski T.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development

There is no information in the literature regarding the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on genes encoding gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamus or on GnRHR gene expression in the pituitary gland in vivo. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in follicular phase ewes, the effects of prolonged, intermittent infusion of small doses of CRH or its antagonist (α-helical CRH 9-41; CRH-A) into the third cerebral ventricle on GnRH mRNA and GnRHR mRNA levels in the hypothalamopituitary unit and on LH secretion. Stimulation or inhibition of CRH receptors significantly decreased or increased GnRH gene expression in the hypothalamus, respectively, and led to different responses in GnRHR gene expression in discrete hypothalamic areas. For example, CRH increased GnRHR gene expression in the preoptic area, but decreased it in the hypothalamus/stalk median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, CRH decreased LH secretion. Blockade of CRH receptors had the opposite effect on GnRHR gene expression. The results suggest that activation of CRH receptors in the hypothalamus of follicular phase ewes can modulate the biosynthesis and release of GnRH through complex changes in the expression of GnRH and GnRHR genes in the hypothalamoanterior pituitary unit. © CSIRO 2011. Source

Przekop F.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Przekop F.,General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Ciechanowska M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Ciechanowska M.,General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences

To regulate reproduction in mammals, internal and external status is communicated to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via a coordinated balance of stimulatory and inhibitory neurochemical systems. This review describes the neuroanatomical organization of the kisspeptin system in the hypothalamus, and summarizes its role in signaling hypothalamic GnRH neurons, namely: multimodal actions of kisspeptin in the control of GnRH secretion during different physiological states of animals; involvement of kisspeptin in relaying metabolic information to hypothalamic GnRH neurons; neurobiological mechanisms underlying kisspeptin activation of GnRH neurons during puberty onset; effect of gonadal steroids in the early postnatal period in rodents on kisspeptin expression in the hypothalamus and gonadotropin secretion in adults; effect of photoperiod and metabolic cues on the activation/inhibition of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in seasonally breeding species by kisspeptin. Source

Szarska E.,General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Cywinska A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Ostaszewski P.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences | Kowalska A.,Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences

The purpose of this study was to compare the training methods used in two stables and their effects on selected blood parameters and race results. A total number of 36 thoroughbred race horses was examined in two groups, trained by two trainers. Twenty-four horses (group A) were trained at Sluzewiec and the remaining twelve horses (group B) were kept and trained in a private stable. The experiment lasted for five months. The activities of CPK (creatine phosphokinase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and the concentration of LA (lactic acid) were determined. The speed was controlled and recorded by a Garmin GPS system. The analysis of the General Handicap rating demonstrated that the training methods used in stable A were more effective and resulted in better classification of these horses. Training methods in both stables were evaluated and compared on the basis of maximal speeds during training sessions and related post exercise LA concentrations. The main differences between training methods used in both stables concerned the workload and the time of work with the rider. Analysis of the values measured in individual horses from stable B have shown that AST and CK activities were high not only in all young, 2-year-old horses but also in three older ones. This seems to confirm the lack of balance and proper movement coordination in these horses, resulting in high activities of muscle enzymes. © Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Veterinary Sciences &University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn 2015. Source

Kocik J.,General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Niemcewicz M.,Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Winnicka I.,General Karol Kaczkowski Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Michalski A.,Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | And 10 more authors.
Acta Biochimica Polonica

The aim of this study was to conduct an epidemiological and laboratory surveillance of Influenza-Like Illnesses (ILI) in Polish Armed Forces, civilian military personnel and their families in 2011/2012 epidemic season, under the United States Department of Defense-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS). ILI incidence data were analyzed in relation to age, gender, patient category as well as pathogen patterns. Multiple viral, bacterial and viral-bacterial co-infections were identified. Nose and throat swabs of active duty soldiers in the homeland country and in the NATO peacekeeping forces KFOR (Kosovo Force), as well as members of their families were tested for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. From October 2011 to May 2012, 416 specimens from ILI symptoms patients were collected and analyzed for the presence of viral and bacterial pathogens. Among viruses, coronavirus was the most commonly detected. In the case of bacterial infections, the most common pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus. Source

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