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Takeuchi K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Takeuchi K.,General Incorporated Association | Abe N.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Kumano A.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
Current Neuropharmacology | Year: 2016

We examined the influence of adrenalectomy on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage in rats and investigated the possible involvement of adrenal glucocorticoids in the protective effects of urocortin I, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist. Male SD rats without fasting were administered indomethacin s.c. and killed 24 h later in order to examine the hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine. Urocortin I (20 μg/kg) was given i.v. 10 min before the administration of indomethacin. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed a week before the experiment. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) caused multiple hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, which were accompanied by a decrease in mucus secretion and increases in intestinal motility, enterobacterial invasion, and iNOS expression. Adrenalectomy markedly increased the ulcerogenic and motility responses caused by indomethacin, with further enhancements in bacterial invasion and iNOS expression; severe lesions occurred at 3 mg/kg, a dose that did not induce any damage in sham-operated rats. This worsening effect was also observed by the pretreatment with mifepristone (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist). Urocortin I prevented indomethacin-induced enteropathy, and this effect was completely abrogated by the pretreatment with astressin 2B, a CRF2 receptor antagonist, but was not significantly affected by either adrenalectomy or the mifepristone pretreatment. These results suggested that adrenalectomy aggravated the intestinal ulcerogenic response to indomethacin, the intestinal hypermotility response may be a key element in the mechanism for this aggravation, and endogenous glucocorticoids played a role in intestinal mucosal defense against indomethacin-induced enteropathy, but did not account for the protective effects of urocortin I, which were mediated by the activation of peripheral CRF2 receptors. © 2016 Bentham Science Publishers.


Tozuka Z.,Sekisui Medical Co. | Kusuhara H.,University of Tokyo | Nozawa K.,Sekisui Medical Co. | Hamabe Y.,Accelerator Centre | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

A study of the pharmacokinetics of 14 C-labeled acetaminophen (AAP) was performed in healthy Japanese subjects receiving an oral microdose of the drug. After separation by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the levels of AAP and its metabolites in the pooled plasma specimens were quantified using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The total body clearance (CL tot)/bioavailability (F) of AAP was within the variation in the reported values at therapeutic doses, indicating the linearity of AAP pharmacokinetics. AAP-glucuronide (Glu) and AAP-4-O-sulfate satisfied the criteria of safety testing of drug metabolites. AMS could detect AAP-Cys, the active metabolite of AAP conjugated with cysteine, in the urine. Probenecid prolonged the systemic elimination of total radioactivity and caused a marked decrease in AAP-Glu levels in plasma. Probenecid likely inhibited the glucuronidation of AAP and the renal elimination of AAP-4-O-sulfate. Microdosing of 14 C-labeled drug followed by AMS is a powerful tool that can be used in the early phase of drug development for pharmacokinetic analysis of drugs and their metabolites and for detecting the formation of active metabolites in humans. © 2010 American Society for clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.


Takeuchi K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Takeuchi K.,General Incorporated Association | Nagahama K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
BioMed Research International | Year: 2014

Esophagitis was induced in rats within 3 h by ligating both the pylorus and transitional region between the forestomach and glandular portion under ether anesthesia. This esophageal injury was prevented by the administration of acid suppressants and antipepsin drug and aggravated by exogenous pepsin. Damage was also aggravated by pretreatment with indomethacin and the selective COX-1 but not COX-2 inhibitor, whereas PGE2 showed a biphasic effect depending on the dose; a protection at low doses, and an aggravation at high doses, with both being mediated by EP1 receptors. Various amino acids also affected this esophagitis in different ways; L-alanine and L-glutamine had a deleterious effect, while L-arginine and glycine were highly protective, both due to yet unidentified mechanisms. It is assumed that acid/pepsin plays a major pathogenic role in this model of esophagitis; PGs derived from COX-1 are involved in mucosal defense of the esophagus; and some amino acids are protective against esophagitis. These findings also suggest a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of esophagitis, in addition to acid suppressant therapy. The model introduced may be useful to test the protective effects of drugs on esophagitis and investigate the mucosal defense mechanism in the esophagus. © 2014 Koji Takeuchi and Kenji Nagahama.


Takeuchi K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Takeuchi K.,General Incorporated Association | Satoh H.,General Incorporated Association | Satoh H.,Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts
Digestion | Year: 2015

Background/Aims: NSAID-induced enteropathy has been the focus of recent basic and clinical research subsequent to the development of the capsule endoscope and double-balloon endoscope. We review the possible pathogenic mechanisms underlying NSAID-induced enteropathy and discuss the role of the inhibition of COX-1/COX-2 and the influences of food as well as various prophylactic treatments on these lesions. Methods: Studies were performed in experimental animals. Results: Multiple factors, such as intestinal hypermotility, decreased mucus secretion, enterobacteria, and upregulation of iNOS/NO expression, are involved in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy, in addition to the decreased production of PGs due to the inhibition of COX. Enterobacterial invasion is the most important pathogenic event, and intestinal hypermotility, which was associated with this event, is essential for the development of these lesions. NSAIDs also upregulate the expression of COX-2, and the inhibition of both COX-1 and COX-2 is required for the intestinal ulcerogenic properties of NSAIDs to manifest. NSAID-induced enteropathy is prevented by PGE2, atropine, ampicillin, and aminoguanidine as well as soluble dietary fiber, and exacerbated by antisecretory drugs such as proton pump inhibitors. Conclusion: These findings on the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy will be useful for the future development of intestinal-sparing alternatives to standard NSAIDs. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Okabe S.,General Incorporated Association | Takeuchi K.,General Incorporated Association
Japanese Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2016

In recent years, the effects of non-essential amino acid, glutamine, on immune system have been focused and were found to modulate inflammatory response, gut function and improve postoperative outcome. In this review article, the effects of glutamine, given either parenteral or enteral route, to man (normal and patients with cancer), farm animals (cow and pigs with pan-creatitis) and rodents (rats and mice) are looked over. In most cases, glutamine showed an improvement of survival rate, minimized infectious complications, costs and hospital-length of stay. In addition, glutamine suppressed the side effect induced by anti-cancer drugs (5-FU, doxorubicin). As one of the mechanism by which glutamine enhances immune response was suggested to be due to the activation of lymphocyte and macrophage. In vitro study, it was shown that glutamine activates lymphocyte and macrophage in a dose-related manner. Therefore, even in in vivo study, a dose-response activity of glutamine was expected. Most of the papers consist of the effect of glutamine at one dose. Thus, even if the effect of glutamine at one dose should be negative, the increase in dose of glutamine appears to show positive results. As a whole, it was confirmed that glutamine has a potentiative activity on immune response in vivo studies as well as in vitro studies. (Jpn Pharmacol Ther 2016 ; 44 : 673-80).


Takeuchi K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Takeuchi K.,Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts | Takeuchi K.,General Incorporated Association
Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) play a role in modulating mucosal integrity and have various functions in the stomach, with E type PGs being the most effective. PGE2 provides gastric cytoprotection against damage induced in rats by HCl/ethanol, indomethacin, or acid back-diffusion after barrier disruption. These effects were mimicked by EP1 agonists and/or attenuated by an EP1 antagonist, and disappeared in EP1 (-/-) mice. Furthermore, the adaptive cytoprotection induced by a mild irritant was attenuated by the EP1 antagonist and indomethacin. Capsaicin also provides gastric protection against HCl/ethanol, and its action was mitigated by indomethacin and sensory deafferentation, but not by the EP1 antagonist. Similar results were obtained using mice lacking various EP receptor subtypes; i.e., PGE2 failed to provide both direct and adaptive cytoprotection in EP1 (-/-) mice, while capsaicin-induced protection was observed in EP1 (-/-) mice, but disappeared in IP (-/-) mice. The effects of PGE2 on various gastric functions are mediated by different EP receptor subtypes; inhibition of acid secretion (EP3) and motility (EP1), stimulation of mucus secretion (EP4) and HCO3- secretion (EP1), and an increase in mucosal blood flow (EP2/EP4). In conclusion, the presence of EP1 receptors is essential to the protective action of PGE2, either generated endogenously or administered exogenously, against HCl/ ethanol or indomethacin, and this action is functionally associated with the inhibition of gastric motility. Endogenous PGs also contribute to maintaining mucosal integrity after barrier disruption through an increase in mucosal blood flow, which occurs via sensory neurons influenced by activation of the EP1 receptor.


Takeuchi K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Takeuchi K.,General Incorporated Association
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Prostaglandin E2 not only prevents NSAID-generated small intestinal lesions, but also promotes their healing. The protective effects of prostaglandin E2 are mediated by the activation of EP4 receptors and functionally associated with the stimulation of mucus/fluid secretions and inhibition of intestinal hypermotility, resulting in the suppression of enterobacterial invasion and iNOS up-regulation, which consequently prevents intestinal lesions. Prostaglandin E2 also promotes the healing of intestinal damage by stimulating angiogenesis through the up-regulation of VEGF expression via the activation of EP4 receptors. These findings have contributed to a further understanding of the mechanisms responsible for 'protective' and 'healing-promoting' effects of prostaglandin E2 and the development of new strategies for the prophylactic treatment of NSAID-induced enteropathy. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Hayashi S.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Hayashi S.,University of Toyama | Kurata N.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Yamaguchi A.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics | Year: 2014

Lubiprostone, a bicyclic fatty acid derived from prostaglandin E 1, has been used to treat chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome, and its mechanism of action has been attributed to the stimulation of intestinal fluid secretion via the activation of the chloride channel protein 2/cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (ClC-2/CFTR) chloride channels. We examined the effects of lubiprostone on indomethacin-induced enteropathy and investigated the functional mechanisms involved, including its relationship with the EP4 receptor subtype. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.) and killed 24 hours later to examine the hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine. Lubiprostone (0.01-1 mg/kg) was administered orally twice 30 minutes before and 9 h after the indomethacin treatment. Indomethacin markedly damaged the small intestine, accompanied by intestinal hypermotility, a decrease in mucus and fluid secretion, and an increase in enterobacterial invasion as well as the up-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFα) mRNAs. Lubiprostone significantly reduced the severity of these lesions, with the concomitant suppression of the functional changes. The effects of lubiprostone on the intestinal lesions and functional alterations were significantly abrogated by the coadministration of AE3-208 [4-(4-cyano-2-(2-(4-fluoronaphthalen-1-yl)propionylamino)phenyl)butyric acid], a selective EP4 antagonist, but not by CFTR(inh)-172, a CFTR inhibitor. These results suggest that lubiprostone may prevent indomethacin-induced enteropathy via an EP4 receptor-dependent mechanism. This effect may be functionally associated with the inhibition of intestinal hypermotility and increase in mucus/fluid secretion, resulting in the suppression of bacterial invasion and iNOS/TNFα expression, which are major pathogenic events in enteropathy. The direct activation of CFTR/ClC-2 chloride channels is not likely to have contributed to the protective effects of lubiprostone. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Takeuchi K.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Takeuchi K.,General Incorporated Association | Takayama S.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University | Izuhara C.,Kyoto Pharmaceutical University
Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Aims: The present study compared the effects of frequently used anti-platelet drugs, such as clopidogrel, ticlopidine, and cilostazol, on the gastric bleeding and ulcerogenic responses induced by intraluminal perfusion with 25 mM aspirin acidified with 25 mM HCl (acidified ASA) in rats.Main methods: The stomach was perfused with acidified ASA at a rate of 0.4 ml/min for 60 min under urethane anesthesia, and gastric bleeding was measured as the concentration of hemoglobin in the luminal perfusate, which was collected every 15 min. Clopidogrel (10-100 mg/kg), ticlopidine (10-300 mg/kg), or cilostazol (3-30 mg/kg) was given p.o. 24 h or 90 min before the perfusion of acidified ASA, respectively.Key findings: Perfusion of the stomach with acidified ASA alone led to slight bleeding and lesions in the stomach. The pretreatment with clopidogrel, even though it did not cause bleeding or damage by itself, dose-dependently increased the gastric bleeding and ulcerogenic responses induced by acidified ASA. Ticlopidine also aggravated the severity of damage by increasing gastric bleeding, and the effects of ticlopidine at 300 mg/kg were equivalent to those of clopidogrel at 100 mg/kg. In contrast, cilostazol dose-dependently decreased gastric bleeding and damage in response to acidified ASA.Significance: These results demonstrated that clopidogrel and ticlopidine, P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, increased gastric bleeding and ulcerogenic responses to acidified ASA, to the same extent, while cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, suppressed these responses. Therefore, cilostazol may be safely used in dual anti-platelet therapy combined with ASA, without increasing the risk of gastric bleeding. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | General Incorporated Association
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Current neuropharmacology | Year: 2016

We examined the influence of adrenalectomy on NSAID-induced small intestinal damage in rats and investigated the possible involvement of adrenal glucocorticoids in the protective effects of urocortin I, a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) agonist. Male SD rats without fasting were administered indomethacin s.c. and killed 24 h later in order to examine the hemorrhagic lesions that developed in the small intestine. Urocortin I (20 g/kg) was given i.v. 10 min before the administration of indomethacin. Bilateral adrenalectomy was performed a week before the experiment. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) caused multiple hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, which were accompanied by a decrease in mucus secretion and increases in intestinal motility, enterobacterial invasion, and iNOS expression. Adrenalectomy markedly increased the ulcerogenic and motility responses caused by indomethacin, with further enhancements in bacterial invasion and iNOS expression; severe lesions occurred at 3 mg/kg, a dose that did not induce any damage in sham-operated rats. This worsening effect was also observed by the pretreatment with mifepristone (a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist). Urocortin I prevented indomethacin-induced enteropathy, and this effect was completely abrogated by the pretreatment with astressin 2B, a CRF2 receptor antagonist, but was not significantly affected by either adrenalectomy or the mifepristone pretreatment. These results suggested that adrenalectomy aggravated the intestinal ulcerogenic response to indomethacin, the intestinal hypermotility response may be a key element in the mechanism for this aggravation, and endogenous glucocorticoids played a role in intestinal mucosal defense against indomethacin-induced enteropathy, but did not account for the protective effects of urocortin I, which were mediated by the activation of peripheral CRF2 receptors.

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