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Zadar, Croatia

Klaric D.,Zadar General Hospital
Acta medica Croatica : časopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti

Peritoneal dialysis is an equally valuable method for some patients. It is a method with some advantages and thus should be considered the method of choice. Are the trends of treatment with this method instead of terminal kidney disease replacement stagnating? In our ten-year retrospective study, we tried to do assess how to control the efficiency of dialysis and what was its influence on patient survival. We compared clinical state of patients, laboratory indicators of dialysis dosage (Kt/v) and peritoneal membrane transport function (PET). Patients were divided according to Kt/v values <1.7, 1.7-2.2 and >2.2. According to PET findings, they were divided into four standard groups. Kt/v and PET are unavoidable evaluation factors of peritoneal membrane and for prescribing dialysis. The transport, ultrafiltration and other membrane characteristics change with time and with inflammatory processes. On any calculation of adequacy, it is essential to distinguish diuretic and anuric patients. The adequacy of peritoneal dialysis should be incorporated in the conclusion on prescriptions and quality treatment of each individual patient. Source

Morovic M.,Zadar General Hospital | Hrstic I.,Pula General Hospital
Acta Medica Croatica

Clinical practice guidelines for the management of chronic hepatitis B infection continue to evolve from year to year but the goal remains the same, i.e. long-term continued suppression of viral replication to prevent disease progression and development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Out of seven drugs approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B, current guidelines recommend entecavir and tenofovir from the nucleos(t)ide analogues and pegylated interferon alfa-2a for the selected group of patients as first-line monotherapies. Both groups showed good results in a number of clinical trials and are used according to the consensus criteria. The treatment of special populations with chronic HBV infection, i.e. those with HCV/HDV/HIV co-infections, immunocompromised patients, patients who have undergone transplantation, patients with solid tumor and cirrhosis, patients with chronic renal failure on dialysis, pregnant women and children, is more often required and more demanding than for usual chronic hepatitis B. Source

Although the majority of peritonitis cases in peritoneal (PD) dialysis patients are caused by gram-positive cocci, streptococcus agalactiae, a gram-positive group B β haemoliticus streptococcus, may rarely be found in this group of patients. We present a case of acute peritonitis caused by streptococcus agalactiae with bacteriemia and septic shock occurring after a curettage indicated because of gynecologic bleeding. The patient did not receive antimicrobial prophylaxis since the gynecologist considered this case as a "routine" procedure without the need to administer antibiotics. Our case demonstrate that small procedures may cause great problems and therefore one should always give priority to individual approach regardless of the protocol for "routine" surgery, especially if there are no indications for the emergency procedure. Source

Klaric D.,Zadar General Hospital | Prkacin I.,University of Zagreb
Acta Medica Croatica

According to the National Registry of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT), the incidence of chronic kidney disease (end-stage renal disease) and the need of RRT have declined in the last decade renal. One of the reasons for this tendency certainly is transplantation as the best choice. However, transplant procedure has limitations in elderly patients due to the number of comorbidities. This study was designed as retrospective analysis of outcomes in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis for a period of eleven years. Patients were divided into those who had been assisted or unassisted. Out of 100 patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), 77 completed the treatment, including 26 assisted and 51 unassisted patients. Peritonitis was recorded in 20 assisted and 26 unassisted patients. Peritonitis was more common in unassisted patients, who were more frequently lost from PD. Assisted PD could be a good and safe choice of RRT in this special group of patients. Source

Kovacic I.,Zadar General Hospital | Dzelalija B.,Zadar General Hospital
Acta Clinica Croatica

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis secondary to a nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess is very rare. This form of mediastinitis in the era of potent antibiotics often ends up with lethal outcome. It usually occurs in immunocompromised patients and requires intensive multidisciplinary treatment approach. We report a case of nontraumatic retropharyngeal abscess complicated by descending necrotizing mediastinitis in a 70-year-old man with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The patient was admitted to our hospital after clinical and radiological diagnosis of retropharyngeal abscess. During treatment for retropharyngeal abscess with antibiotic therapy and transoral incision, the patient showed mild clinical improvement but his condition suddenly aggravated on day 4 of hospital stay. He had high fever, chest pain with tachypnea, tachycardia, hypotension, and showed signs of occasional disorientation. Emergency computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck and thorax showed inflammation in the retropharyngeal space, as well as thickening of the upper posterior mediastinum fascia with the presence of air. Emergency surgery including cervicotomy and drainage of the retropharyngeal space and posterior mediastinum was performed. The patient promptly recovered with improvement of the clinical status and laboratory findings. After 16 days of treatment he was discharged from the hospital in good condition. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis can be a serious and life threatening complication of deep neck infection if the diagnosis is not quickly established. Besides inevitable application of antimicrobial drugs, good drainage of the mediastinum is necessary. We believe that transcervical approach can achieve high-quality drainage of the upper mediastinum, especially if it is done timely as in this case. Its efficacy can be verified by intensive monitoring of the patient clinical condition, by CT scan of the thorax, and by laboratory tests. In the case of inefficacy of this type of drainage, subsequently some other, more aggressive transthoracic methods of drainage can be done. Source

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