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Chen H.-S.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Li F.-P.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Li X.-Q.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Liu B.-J.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | And 4 more authors.
Stress | Year: 2013

Restraint stress modulates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of acute restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated the effect of 1h restraint on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) and increase in paw volume (PV) of the injected paw induced by BV. SPFR was measured immediately after BV injection, and PWMT and PV were measured 2h before BV and 2-8h after BV. The results showed that acute restraint inhibited significantly the SPFR but failed to affect mechanical hyperalgesia. In contrast, stress enhanced significantly inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the effects of pretreatment with capsaicin locally applied to the sciatic nerve, systemic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), and systemic naloxone were examined on the antinociception and proinflammation produced by acute restraint stress. Local capsaicin pretreatment inhibited BV-induced nociception and inflammatory edema, and had additive effects with stress on nociception but reduced stress enhancement of edema. Systemic 6-OHDA treatment attenuated the proinflammatory effect of stress, but did not affect the antinociceptive effect. Systemic naloxone pretreatment eliminated the antinociceptive effect of stress, but did not affect proinflammation. Taken together, our data indicate that acute restraint stress contributes to antinociception via activating an endogenous opioid system, while sympathetic postganglionic fibers may contribute to enhanced inflammation in the BV pain model. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source


Chen H.-S.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Qu F.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | He X.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Wang Y.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Wen W.-W.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Sympathetic postganglionic neurons play an important role in pathological pain. This study was designed to investigate the role of sympathetic postganglionic neurons in inflammatory pain induced by bee venom (BV). The effects of chemical (with guanethidine or 6-hydroxydopamine) or surgical sympathectomy on BV-induced spontaneous foot lifting, mechanical hyperalgesia, and edema were observed. The results showed that surgical or chemical sympathectomy significantly attenuated an increase in paw volume (PV) and a decrease in paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) induced by BV; however, these interventions had no effect on BV-evoked spontaneous foot lifting. Furthermore, pharmacological blockade of adrenergic receptors via systemic delivery of phentolamine, an α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, or prazosin, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, produced similar inhibitory effects on BV-induced changes in PV and PWMT, however, yohimbine, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, had no such effects. These results suggest that the interaction between sympathetic postganglionic neurons and primary afferent neurons via α1-adrenergic receptor play key roles in BV-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and inflammatory swelling but not in spontaneous foot lifting. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Chen H.-S.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Qu F.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | He X.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Liao D.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | And 2 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010

Many studies have demonstrated the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of injecting bee venom (BV) into the Zusanli (ZSL) acupoint in rats. The present study was designed to determine whether the injection of other chemical irritants, such as formalin and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), into the ZSL acupoint can produce anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the BV pain model and to determine the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. First, the effects of injecting BV, formalin, CFA, or saline into the ZSL acupoint on intraplantar BV-induced persistent spontaneous pain, mechanical hyperalgesia, and inflammatory swelling of the injected paw were observed. BV, formalin, CFA, and saline injection into the ZSL acupoint significantly inhibited intraplantar BV-induced persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN) and mechanical hyperalgesia but had no effect on intraplantar BV-induced inflammatory swelling. Next, the effects of pretreatment with naloxone (5 mg/kg, ip) or injection of 0.15% capsaicin into the ZSL acupoint on the anti-nociceptive effect of BV acupuncture (BVA) were observed. Pretreatment with naloxone had no effect on the BVA-induced anti-nociceptive effect, intraplantar BV-induced PSN, and mechanical hyperalgesia. Pretreatment with capsaicin produced partial blockage of the BVA-induced anti-nociceptive effect on PSN, but it had no effect on BVA-induced anti-nociception of mechanical hyperalgesia. These results suggest that (1) chemical irritant acupuncture produces the anti-nociceptive effect but not the anti-inflammatory effect in the BV pain model, and (2) chemical irritant acupuncture-induced analgesia is a common mechanism that is not specific to BV acupuncture. Our results also suggest that the BVA-induced anti-nociceptive mechanism is partially mediated by capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers but not by endogenous mu opioid receptors in the BV pain model. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Chen H.-S.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Qu F.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | He X.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Kang S.-M.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2010

Intraplantar injection of bee venom (BV) produces persistent spontaneous nociception (PSN), hyperalgesia, and inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. The present study was designed to determine the roles of peripheral metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in BV-induced nociception and inflammation. We determined the effects of the group I mGluR antagonist AIDA, the group II mGluR agonist ADPC, and the group III mGluR agonist L-AP4 on BV-induced PSN, mechanical hyperalgesia, and inflammatory swelling. Pretreatment with intraplantar injections of AIDA, ADPC or L-AP4 at different doses significantly inhibited BV-induced PSN over the 1-hour observational period. The inhibitory effects of ADPC and L-AP4 were completely abolished by pretreatment with the group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 and the group III mGluR antagonist MSOP, respectively. Pretreatment with ADPC prevented the BV-induced decrease in paw-withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) in a dose-dependent manner, while pretreatment with AIDA or L-AP4 had no effect. The antihyperalgesic effect of ADPC was completely abolished by pretreatment with LY341495. Pretreatment with AIDA, ADPC or L-AP4 at different doses had no effect on the BV-induced increase in the paw volume (PV), a measurement of inflammatory swelling. All contralateral drug treatments at the highest doses had no effect on BV-induced PSN, decreases in PWMT or increases in PV, eliminating the possibility of drug-induced systemic effects. These data suggest that the activation of mGluRs in the periphery may play a differential role in BV-induced nociception and inflammation. Perspective: The present study demonstrated that the intraplantar injection of antagonists or agonists of different mGluRs produced differential effects on bee venom-induced persistent spontaneous nociception and mechanical hyperalgesia. However, no effects on inflammation were observed, suggesting that mGluRs in the periphery have differential roles. Thus, therapies specifically targeting metabotropic glutamate receptors may improve the treatment of patients with persistent spontaneous nociception and hyperalgesia. © 2010 American Pain Society. Source


He F.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Xia C.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Zhang J.-H.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | Li X.-Q.,General Hospital of Shen Yang Military Region | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2015

Recent studies have suggested that combination antiplatelet therapy may be superior to monotherapy in the treatment of acute stroke. However, additional prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding. The present trial compared the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone in the treatment of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke within 72 hours of onset. Six hundred and ninety patients aged ≥40 years with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were identified for enrollment. Experienced physicians determined baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores at the time of admission. All patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive aspirin alone (300 mg/day) or clopidogrel (300 mg for the first day, 75 mg/day thereafter) plus aspirin (100 mg/day). The main endpoints were neurological deterioration, recurrent stroke, and development of stroke in patients with TIA within 14 days of admission. After 43 patients were excluded, 321 patients in the dual therapy group and 326 patients in the monotherapy group completed the treatment. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. During the 2 week period, stroke deterioration occurred in nine patients in the dual therapy group and 19 patients in the monotherapy group. Stroke occurred after TIA in one patient in the dual therapy group and three patients in the monotherapy group. Similar numbers of adverse events occurred in both groups. This study showed that early dual antiplatelet treatment reduced early neurological deterioration in patients with acute ischemic stroke, compared with antiplatelet monotherapy. These results imply that dual antiplatelet therapy is superior to monotherapy in the early treatment of acute ischemic stroke. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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