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Song H.Z.,General Hospital of Nanjing Military Base
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2010

Prostate cancer is one of the most common type of cancer among men after middle age. Androgen withdrawal can delay its progression in the initial stage, but it finally becomes independent of androgens in almost all the cases. The combination of docetaxel with prednisone is currently a standard first-line treatment for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC), but hitherto there is no established second-line therapy. In view of the molecular pathogenesis of HRPC, this article presents an overview on several promising drugs that target specific pathways, involving angiogenesis, cell signaling, apoptosis and proliferation, and immune modulation, either as single agents or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

Tang H.,General Hospital of Nanjing Military Base
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2010

Prostate cancer shows a strong predilection to spread to the bones. Cancer metastasis is composed of a complex cascade that involves a variety of critical steps beginning with detachment from the primary tumor and ending with growth of the tumor at a distant site. Varus factors produced by the bone microenvironment contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer skeletal metastasis. This review summarizes the multifactorial mechanisms and complex cellular interactions that take place inside the bone metastatic microenvironment.

Wang C.H.,General Hospital of Nanjing Military Base
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2011

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is considered to be one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Epidemiological studies conducted on erectile dysfunction (ED) have demonstrated its close correlation with cardiovascular disease, and therefore HHcy might be a novel risk factor of ED. However, the mechanism of ED resulting from HHcy is not precisely known, but may relate to increased damage of vascular endothelial cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and atherosclerosis. Although further studies are needed on this association between HHcy and ED, the measurement of plasma Hcy and folic acid levels and molecular analysis of the MTHFR genotype might be added to the ED diagnostic procedure, especially in young patients or in those with a family history of cardiovascular disease. Treatment of ED patients with HHcy should first aim to reduce the Hcy level through administration of folic acid, alone or in combination with vitamin B6 or B12, and then proceed to treatment with PDE5i. This paper offers an overview on the advances in the studies of the correlation between HHcy and ED.

Zhan X.X.,General Hospital of Nanjing Military Base
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2013

Reproductive tract infection is one of the factors of male infertility, but the mechanisms responsible are hitherto poorly defined. Recent studies show that one of the microbial pattern-recognition receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, plays a critical role in inflammation-induced male infertility. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component in the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria, could induce inflammatory response through TLRs. A large number of researches suggest that TLRs express widely in the male reproductive tract and LPS-induced inflammatory reaction through TLRs may affect male fertility. This article presents an overview on how LPS-induced inflammation through TLRs affects male fertility in terms of its influence on the testis, epididymis and sperm quality.

Yi X.M.,General Hospital of Nanjing Military Base
Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology | Year: 2011

To evaluate the effects of methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-Deoxycytidine (5-aza-2dc) and docetaxel (DT), alone or in combination, on the proliferation, migration, apoptosis and cell cycles of the human prostate cancer cell line PC3, and to investigate the possible mechanisms of these two drugs acting on prostate cancer in vitro. Four groups were designed in this experiment: control, 5-aza-2dc, DT, and 5-aza-2dc + DT. The inhibitory effect of 5-aza-2dc and/or DT on the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of PC3 cells was detected by MTT, wound healing assay and cell migration assay, respectively. The apoptosis of the PC3 cells and its relationship with cell cycles were determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay and flow cytometry. 5-aza-2dc and/or DT significantly increased the inhibition rate of the PC3 cells, decreased their migration distance and reduced the number of the cells that invaded the lower chamber, most significantly in the 5-aza-2dc + DT group (P < 0.05). The cell apoptosis rates of the control, 5-aza-2dc, DT and 5-aza-2dc + DT groups were (10.65 +/- 0.39)%, (16.60 +/- 0.67)%, (17.95 +/- 1.08)% and (22.98 +/- 1.18)%, respectively, with the most significant increase in the combination group (P < 0.05). Combined medication of 5-aza-2dc and DT remarkably reduced the number of cells in the G0/G1 phase, and increased that in the G2/M phase (P < 0.05). 5-aza-2dc and DT, either alone or in combination, can significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasiveness of PC3 cells in vitro, as well as induce their apoptosis and arrest their cell cycles in the G2/M phase, with even more significant effect when used in combination than applied alone.

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