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Ming L.-G.,General Hospital of Lanzhou | Chen K.-M.,General Hospital of Lanzhou | Xian C.J.,University of South Australia
Journal of Cellular Physiology | Year: 2013

Increasingly natural products particularly flavonoids are being explored for their therapeutic potentials in reducing bone loss and maintaining bone health. This study has reviewed previous studies on the two better known flavonoids, genistein and icariin, their structures, functions, action mechanisms, relative potency, and potential application in regulating bone remodeling and preventing bone loss. Genistein, an isoflavone abundant in soy, has dual functions on bone cells, able to inhibit bone resorption activity of osteoclasts and stimulate osteogenic differentiation and maturation of bone marrow stromal progenitor cells (BMSCs) and osteoblasts. Genistein is an estrogen receptor (ER)-selective binding phytoestrogen, with a greater affinity to ERβ. Genistein inhibits tyrosine kinases and inhibits DNA topoisomerases I and II, and may act as an antioxidant. Genistein enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation by activation of ER, p38MAPK-Runx2, and NO/cGMP pathways, and it inhibits osteoclast formation and bone resorption through inducing osteoclastogenic inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) and blocking NF-κB signaling. Icariin, a prenylated flavonol glycoside isolated from Epimedium herb, stimulates osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and inhibits bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. Icariin, whose metabolites include icariside I, icariside II, icaritin, and desmethylicaritin, has no estrogenic activity. However, icariin is more potent than genistein in promoting osteogenic differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts. The existence of a prenyl group on C-8 of icariin molecular structure has been suggested to be the reason why icariin is more potent than genistein in osteogenic activity. Thus, the prenylflavonoids may represent a class of flavonoids with a higher osteogenic activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zhang M.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2012

To investigate the effect of salidroside on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) differentiation into the cholinergic nerve cells, so as to provide the theory basis of the combination of salidroside and stem cells for clinical therapy of nervous system diseases. BMSCs were isolated from 2 Wistar rats (aged 4-6 weeks,weighing 120 g), which were identified by CD34, CD45, CD90, and CD106 with flow cytometry. According to inducing method, BMSCs at passage 2 were divided into 3 groups: In groups A and B, BMSCs were induced by salidroside (20 microg/mL) and retinoic acid (5 micromol/mL) respectively for 1, 3, 6, and 9 days, in group C, BMSCs were cultured with serum-free DMEM/F12 medium as control. MTT assay was used to detect the cellular proliferation activity. The immunofluorescence chemical technology was used to detect the expressions of nerve growth factor (NGF) and relevant marker molecule of nerve cells, including neuron-specific enolase (NSE), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), beta-Tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the marker of cholinergic neuron, such as Acetylcholine (Ach) and NGF. RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expressions of NSE, beta-Tubulin III, GFAP,brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF),and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). ELISA was used to detect the levels of BDNF and NGF, and the expression level of NGF protein was analyzed by Western blot. The results of the flow cytometry showed that the cultured cells were CD90 and CD106 positive, and CD34 and CD45 negative,which indicated that the cells were BMSCs. The cellular proliferation activity in groups A and B were significantly higher than that in group C at 6 days and 9 days (P < 0.05). RT-PCR results showed that the expression level of NSE,BDNF, beta-Tubulin III,GFAPmRNA were increased in group A at 6 days; In group B, that expression level of NSE mRNA was up-regulated at 6 days, that expression level of BDNF mRNA increased at 1 days and reached the peak at 6 days, and that expression level of beta-Tubulin III mRNA was up-regulated at 3 days, which was significantly higher than that at the other time points, and than that in group C (P < 0.01). But no GABA mRNA expression was detected in each group. Immunofluorescence chemical technology staining showed that the positive rates of NSE, MAP2, beta-Tubulin III, and GFAP were significantly higher in group A than those in group C at 3 days; the positive rates of Ach were significantly higher at 3, 6, and 9 days than those at 1 day in groups A and B, and in groups A and B than in group C (P < 0.01); the positive rates of NGF in groups A and B were significantly higher than those in group C (P < 0.01). The levels of BDNF and NGF in groups A and B were significantly higher than those in group C at 1, 3, 6, and 9 days (P < 0.01), but no significant difference of BDNF was found between groups A and B (P > 0.05). The expression level of NGF protein in groups A and B were significantly higher than that in group C (P < 0.01). The NGF expression reached the peak at 6 days in group A and at 3 days in group B. Salidroside could induce rat BMSCs differentiate into cholinergic nerve cells in vitro.


Zhai Y.K.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2010

To investigate the effects of icariin and it's main metabolites-icariside II on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs). rBMSCs were cultured by adherence screening method, icariin and icariside II were supplemented into the culture at 5 x 10(-5) mol/L respectively. The osteogenic differentiation markers including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, CFU-F(ALp), osteocalcin secretion, calcium deposition and mineralized bone modulus were compared among the icariin-supplemented group, icariside II and the control. The gene expressions of bFGF, IGF-1, Osterix and Runx-2 were examined by RT-Real Time PCR. Both icariside II and icariin significantly improved ALP activity, CFU-F(ALP) amount, osteocalcin secretion, calcium deposition and mineralized modulus. Besides, they enhanced the gene expressions of bFGF, IGF-1, Osterix and Runx-2. Icariside II was obviously stronger than icariin at the above activities. Icariside II is stronger than icariin at enhancing the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs, suggesting that icariin can be administered via oral and it's metabolites are the effective constitutes for antiosteoporosis activity.


Liu Y.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2010

To construct the lentiviral vector to co-express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene and human insulin (insulin) gene, and to explore the condition to transfect human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) so as to lay a foundation for tissue engineered adipose reconstruction and transplantation in vivo in future. The insulin gene was cloned to lentiviral expression vector with EGFP [pLenti6.3-internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-EGFP] by recombinant DNA technology, the positive clones were screened, and lentiviral packaged systems and target gene plasmid were co-transfected to package virus in 293T cells by lipofectin. The reporter gene expression was observed by fluorescent inverted phase contrast microscope, virus supernatant was collected, purified and concentrated, and the titer of recombinant viruses was determined, hUCMSCs from umbilical cord tissue of mature neonates were isolated and cultured by different multiple of infection (MOI, 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20). By recombinant lentiviral infected hUCMSCs with reporter gene green fluorescent protein expression, the best MOI was screened; recombinant lentiviral infected hUCMSCs at the best MOI, then real-time PCR and Western blot methods were applied to detect insulin gene and insulin protein expression levels in cells. The recombinant lentiviral vector of co-expressing insulin gene and EGFP gene (pLenti6.3-insulin-IRES EGFP) was successfully constructed. Virus could be packaged, purified and concentrated successfully. The virus titer was 1.3 x 10(8) TU/mL. The best MOI was 10 and the transfer efficiency was up to 90% in the same time. Real-time PCR results showed that insulin gene expression of transfected group was positive and non-transfected group was negative; Western blot detection confirmed that insulin protein expression of transfected group was positive in cells and supernatant, but that of non-transfected group was both negative. Lentiviral vector pLenti6.3-insulin-IRES-EGFP carrying recombinant insulin gene could effectively transfect hUCMSCs and express insulin protein.


Ma D.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2012

To summarize the recent progress of cell-based approaches for promoting bone regeneration in distraction osteogenesis (DO). Recent literature concerning enhancement of bone regeneration following DO using cell-based approaches was reviewed and analyzed. An overview of 4 different cell-based approaches was mainly provided: single cell injection, cell scaffold-based strategies/injectable tissue engineered bone, microtissue technology or cell aggregate technology, and stem cell gene therapy. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Other methods are still in the experimental research except that compound injection of bone marrow mesechymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma has been applied to clinical practice. The cell-based approach is a promising strategy in the field of bone regenerative medicine. These approaches have bright future in promoting bone regeneration and reducing the treatment period in DO in the clinical application. However, well-designed preclinical studies are required to establish safe and effective guidelines for cell-based approaches to promoting bone regeneration during DO.


Ming L.G.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To investigate the effect of isopsoralen on proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and calcification capacity of rat calvarial osteoblasts (ROB). Segregated neonatal SD rat skull,and digestion with enzyme to obtain bone cells and cultured in MEM containing 10% FBS. Exchange the medium after three days, proceeded serial subcultivation when cells covered with 90% culture dish. Proliferation analysis was performed in 96-well plates use MTT method, isopsoralen's final concentration were 1 x 10(-4), 1 x10(-5), 1 x 10(-6), 1 x 10(-7) mmol/L. Differentiation analysis was performed in 24-well plates, the Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium salt sediment yield and osteocalcin measured at the 4th, 8th, 12th, 16th day. At 12th day, proceeded ALP stain, and at 14th day for alizarin red staining and calcified nodule count. When the Isopsoralen's final concentration was 1 x 10(-5) mmol/L, there was no significant effect on the ROB's proliferation, but it could promote osteogenesis. It also could raise the ALP activity and calcium salt sediment yield and osteocalcin, increase calcified tubercle amount. When the isopsoralen final concentration is 1 x 10(-5) mmol/L, it promoted ROB differentiation and maturation. Isopsoralen may be the active ingredients of preventing anti-osteoporosis in Psoralea corylifolia.


To investigate the effect of aloe polysaccharides pretreatment on the cerebral inflammatory response and lipid peroxidation in severe hemorrhagic shock rats first entering high altitude. Forty healthy male SD rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8 each): sham group, shock group, AP group was further divided into 3 subgroups (AP1 0.75 mg/kg; AP2 1.50 mg/kg; AP3 3.00 mg/kg). The different doses AP were given iv respectively at 30 min before hemorrhagic shock. The mean blood pressure (MAP) was maintained at (35 ± 5) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) for 60 minutes. The animals were killed at 2 hours after resuscitation. Blood samples were obtained from femoral artery for detecting tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations; the frontal and parietal lobes brain and the hippocampus were separated from brain tissues on the ice for detecting superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, brain Wet-dry weight ratio (W/D). Compared with sham group, hemorrhagic shock significantly increased serum TNF-α ((76 ± 11) ng/L), IL-6 ((1303 ± 141) ng/L) and IL-10 concentrations ((95 ± 14) ng/L), MPO activity ((20.72 ± 2.28)×10(-2) U/g) and MDA concentration ((80 ± 13) nmol/mgprot) in the brain tissue and brain W/D (6.21 ± 0.18) (t = 6.928 - 14.565, P < 0.05), while SOD activity ((56 ± 11) U/mgprot) decreased significantly (t = -5.374, P < 0.05). There were no significant difference between shock and AP1 groups. AP2 group significantly inhibited hemorrhagic shock-induced increase serum TNF-α ((54 ± 12) ng/L), IL-6 ((846 ± 78) ng/L) and IL-10 concentrations ((66 ± 11) ng/L), MPO activity ((13.13 ± 1.23)×10(-2) U/g) and MDA concentration ((56 ± 9) nmol/mgprot) in the brain tissue and brain W/D (5.71 ± 0.18) (t = -6.905 - -3.357, P < 0.05), while SOD activity ((86 ± 12) U/mgprot) increased significantly compared to shock group (t = 4.240, P < 0.05). There were no significant difference between AP2 and AP3 groups. AP pretreatment can attenuate the cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury in severe traumatic-hemorrhagic rats first entering high altitude through inhibiting systemic inflammatory response and leukocyte aggregation and lipid peroxidation in the brain.


Li M.,General Hospital of Lanzhou | Liu X.,General Hospital of Lanzhou | Ge B.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research | Year: 2010

Background The capacity for bone healing reportedly is limited in osteoporosis with a less than ideal environment for healing of bone grafts. We therefore developed a composite bone substitute with rhBMP-2 loaded gelatin microsphere (GM) and calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to use in osteoporosis. Questions/purposes We asked whether (1) controlled release of rhBMP-2 could be improved in this composite bone substitute and (2) increasing factors released from the bone substitute could accelerate osteoporotic bone healing. Methods We soaked rhBMP-2/GM/CPC and rhBMP-2/CPC composites in simulated body fluid for 28 days and then determined the amount of rhBMP-2 released. Both composites were implanted in bone defects of osteoporotic goats and left in place for 45 and 140 days; the specimens then were evaluated mechanically (pushout test) and morphologically (CT scanning, histology). Results The in vitro study showed the new composite released more rhBMP-2 compared with rhBMP-2/CPC. CT showed the defects healed more quickly with new grafts. The bone mineralization rate was greater in rhBMP-2/GM/CPC than in rhBMP-2/CPC after 45 days of implantation and the pushout test was stronger after 45 and 140 days of implantation. Conclusions The new graft composite released more loaded factors and appeared to repair osteoporotic bone defects. Clinical Relevance These preliminary data suggest the new composite can be used as a bone substitute to accelerate healing of fractures and bone defects in osteoporosis. © The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons ® 2010.


Gao M.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2013

To evaluate the fixation strength of expansive pedicle screw (EPS) at different bone mineral density (BMD) levels, further to provide theoretical evidence for the clinical application of the EPS in patients with osteoporosis. Fresh human cadaver spines (T12-L5 spines) were divided into 4 levels: normal BMD, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and severe osteoporosis according to the value of BMD, 12 vertebra in each level. Conventional pedicle screw (CPS) or EPS was implanted into the bilateral vertebra in CPS group and EPS group, respectively, 12 screws in each group per BMD level. Screw pullout tests were conducted. The maximum pullout strength, stiffness, and energy absorption were determined by an AG-IS material testing machine with constant rate of loading in a speed of 5 mm/min. With the decline of BMD from normal to severe osteoporosis level, the maximum pullout strength and the stiffness correspondingly declined (P < 0.05). In CPS group, the energy absorption gradually decreased (P < 0.05); in EPS group, significant difference was found between other different BMD levels (P < 0.05) except between normal BMD and osteopenia and between osteoporosis and severe osteoporosis (P > 0.05). At the same BMD level, the maximum pullout strength of EPS group was significantly larger than that of CPS group (P < 0.05); the stiffness of EPS group was significantly higher than that of CPS group (P < 0.05) except one at normal BMD level; and no significant difference was found in the energy absorption between 2 groups (P > 0.05) except one at osteopenia level. No significant difference was found in maximum pullout strength, stiffness, and energy absorption between EPS group at osteoporosis level and CPS group at osteopenia level (P > 0.05); however, the maximum pullout strength, stiffness, and energy absorption of EPS group at severe osteoporosis level were significantly lower than those of CPS group at osteopenia level (P < 0.05). Compared with CPS, the EPS can significantly improve the fixation strength, especially in patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis.


Wei X.,General Hospital of Lanzhou
Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery | Year: 2012

To investigate the effects of allogenic transplantation of acellular muscle bioscaffolds (AMBS) seeded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the repair of acute hemi-transection spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. AMBS were prepared by reformed chemical approach and sterilized by compound cold sterilization; BMSCs were harvested by density gradient centrifugation and cultured with adherent method. The 3rd generation BMSCs labeled by Hoechst 33342 were injected into AMBS to construct the BMSCs-AMBS composite scaffolds; the biocompatibility was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence microscope in vitro at 14 days. Forty-eight adult female Sprague Dawley rats were used to build SCI model by hemi-transecting at T(9-11) level, then randomly divided into 4 groups (n=12). Defects were repaired with BMSCs-AMBS composite scaffolds, BMSCs, and AMBS in groups A, B, and C, respectively; group D was blank control by injecting PBS. At 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery, the functional recovery of the hind limbs was evaluated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating score. At 4 weeks after surgery, HE staining and immunofluorescent assay were adopted. Masson staining and HE staining showed that AMBS was mainly of the collagen fibers in parallel arrange, without muscle fibers. After 14 days of BMSCs and AMBS co-culture, a large number of survival BMSCs labeled by Hoechst 33342 were seen under fluorescence microscope; SEM showed that BMSCs grew and attached to the inner surfaces of AMBS. At 2-4 weeks, the BBB score in group A was significantly higher than that in groups B, C, and D (P < 0.05), and it was significantly lower in group D than in the other 3 groups (P < 0.05); at 4 weeks, the BBB score in group B was significantly higher than that in group C (t=10.352, P=0.000). HE staining revealed that the area of spinal cord cavity after SCI was markedly smaller in group A than in the other 3 groups; immunofluorescent assay showed that more neurofilament 200 positive fibers and Nestin positive cells were detected in group A than in groups B, C, and D, but glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells significantly decreased. The integral absorbance (IA) values of GFAP were 733.01 +/- 202.04, 926.42 +/- 59.46, 1 069.37 +/- 33.42, and 1 469.46 +/- 160.53 in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively; the IA value of group A was significantly lower than that of groups B, C, and D (P < 0.05), and it was significantly higher in group D than in groups A, B, and C (P < 0.05). With relatively regular internal structures and good biocompatibility, AMBS can inhibit glial scar and enhance the survival, migration, and differentiation of BMSCs, so AMBS is the ideal nature vector for cell transplantation. Co-transplantation of AMBS and BMSCs has synergistic effect in treating SCI, it can promote rat motor function recovery.

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