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Kolovou G.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | Kolovou V.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | Mihas C.,General Hospital of Kimi | Giannakopoulou V.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | And 6 more authors.

We compared the efficacy of atorvastatin with simvastatin according to cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) genes. Patients treated with atorvastatin (n = 254) or simvastatin (n = 332) were genotyped for CETP (TaqIB and I405V) and ABCA1 (R219K) genetic variants. For genotype B1B2, atorvastatin compared with simvastatin treatment resulted in a greater decrease in total cholesterol (35.4% vs 31.6%, P =.035) and a lower increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2% vs 8%, P =.05). For genotype B2B2, atorvastatin compared with simvastatin treatment resulted in a lower decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (31.85 vs 42%, P =.029). For genotypes RR and KK, atorvastatin compared with simvastatin treatment resulted in a greater decrease of triglycerides (27% vs 17% and 35% vs 15%, respectively; P =.02 for all comparisons). The TaqIB and R219K (opposite to I405V) gene polymorphisms seem to modify the response to lipid-lowering therapy with simvastatin or atorvastatin treatment. © The Author(s) 2012. Source

Grivas T.B.,TZANIO General Hospital of Piraeus | Mihas C.,General Hospital of Kimi | Mazioti C.,TZANIO General Hospital of Piraeus | Zisis N.,TZANIO General Hospital of Piraeus | And 3 more authors.
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics

Introduction. Trunkal back asymmetry is considered very important for the selection of children at risk of developing scoliosis. Traditionally, this asymmetry as thoracic or lumbar hump is the main indicator for referral of subjects with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) to clinics from school-screening programs. This asymmetry is also used as the most important sign for further assessment at scoliosis clinics. There are reports suggesting that an epigenetic risk factor for IS is maternal age at birth. However, the influence of maternal age on the development of trunkal asymmetry during growth has not been reported. This report aims to assess if maternal age at birth impacts trunkal asymmetry, and how this parameter may dictate the epigenotypic expression of the trunkal asymmetry of a child. Material and methods. The sample examined: 11832 (5855 males and 5977 females) children and adolescents (5-17 years old, mean age: 11.34±2.79) were screened at their school for back trunkal asymmetry and/or scoliosis. The measurements: The Prujis scoliometer was used to examine the students in standing and sitting forward bending positions. If at least one of child's measured angles was equal to or exceeded 6 or 7 degrees of scoliometer reading, it was labelled as "Asymmetry-6" and "Asymmetry-7" respectively. The age, standing height and body weight of children and maternal age were also documented, among other parameters. The maternal age at birth and children's BMI were subsequently calculated. The statistical analysis: Asymmetries were tested for correlation with maternal age at birth which was transformed to a categorical variable using 5-year intervals. Pearson's-2 test was used for the univariate analysis, while logistic regression was used for quantitative univariate and multivariate analysis. Statistical significance level was set to p<.05. SPSS and STATA× v. 11.0 statistical packages were used for the analysis. Results. Univariate analysis: Univariate analysis showed that the prevalence of asymmetry-6 in boys tended to significantly decrease as mother's age at birth increased (mother's age at birth: <19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, >40 years, % of asymmetry-6: 11.5%, 9.5%, 8.5%, 7.6%, 5.2%, 5.3%, respectively, (p=0.026). This trend, although present, was not significant in girls. The prevalence of asymmetry-7 also showed a decreasing trend, which was only significant in boys (mother's age at birth: <19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, >40 years, % of asymmetry-7: 8.7%, 5.9%, 5.9%, 4.6%, 2.6%, 3.5%, respectively, p=0.010). Maternal age at birth, as a continuous variable, was inversely associated with the appearance of asymmetry-6 in both boys and girl s (OR: 0.966, 0.982, 95%CIs: 0.947-0.985, 0.965-0.999, p: 0.001, 0.040, respectively). This was also the case for asymmetry-7 only in boys: (OR: 0.961, 0.982, 95%CIs: 0.938-0.985, 0.962-1.003, p: 0.001, 0.088, respectively). Multivariate analysis: The significant and inverse effect of maternal age at birth on the appearance of asymmetry in boys remained even after adjusting for child's BMI and age. For one year increase of maternal age at birth, the odds of the boys being asymmetrical6 were reduced by 2.8% (OR:0.972, 95% CIs: 0.953-0.992, p: 0.005), adjusting for child's age and BMI. For one year increase of maternal age at birth, the odds of the boys being asymmetrical7 were reduced by 3.2% (OR:0.968, 95% CIs: 0.945-0.992, p: 0.010), adjusting for child's age and BMI. However, the aforementioned correlations were not significant for girls in both cases. Discussion and conclusions. The influence of maternal age at birth on the development of trunkal asymmetry during growth has not been previously assessed, as evidenced from literature review. The findings of this report indicate that maternal age as an environmental factor in the general population, may possibly influence epigenetically, the occurrence of the initial presentation of trunkal asymmetry in males more than females, as well as IS during growth. Consistent findings reported from the USA, Edinburgh and Sweden reveal increased maternal age as a risk factor for AIS, suggesting maternal factors can predispose to it. It seems that males are more affected by this factor but, unexpectedly in this study, by younger and not older mothers, as reported for AIS in the literature. Low-birth weight associated with younger parental age may also be associated with increased trunkal asymmetry particularly of boys, an hypothesis that need testing. The importance our findings is based on the belief that the intra-uterine environment is crucial in programming the fetus for various health and disease outcomes throughout life. © 2012 The authors and IOS Press. All rights reserved. Source

Mihas C.,General Hospital of Kimi | Kolovou G.D.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | Mikhailidis D.P.,University College London | Kovar J.,Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine | And 7 more authors.
Current Vascular Pharmacology

Background/Aim: Triglycerides (TGs) are measured in studies evaluating changes in non-fasting lipid profiles after a fat tolerance test (FTT); however, the optimal timing for TG measurements after the oral fat load is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate how non-fasting TG levels vary after an oral FTT in healthy subjects. Methods: This meta-analysis included 113 studies with >5 participants of Caucasian race that were indexed in PubMed from its inception through March 2010, using the search term "postprandial lipemia". We only included studies that provided mean values and standard deviation (SD) (or standard error of the mean) for TG measurements at baseline (=fasting) and for at least one other time-point. Exclusion criteria included uncommon sampling time-points after the FTT, baseline TGs≥2.0 mmol/L (≥177mg/dl), and a body mass index ≥30kg/m2. Results: All studies combined, weighted mean±SD TG values in mmol/L were 1.25±0.32 fasting, 1.82±0.40 at 2 h, 2.31±0.62 at 4 h, 1.87±0.63 at 6 h, and 1.69±0.80 at 8 h. After stratifying studies based on fat quantity in the test meal (<40, ≥40-<50, ≥50-<60, ≥60-<70, ≥70-<80, ≥80-<90, ≥90-<100, ≥100- <110, ≥110-120, ≥120 g), the highest standardized mean difference in TG levels from fasting levels was found in those having an oral fat load of ≥70 g and <80 g, and at 4 h (difference=1.74 mmol/L; p<0.001). Conclusion: The 4 h time-point after an oral fat load during a FTT was the most representative measurement of TGs. The highest standardized mean difference of TGs was found after a meal containing 70-79g of fat. The relevance of these two key parameters determined in healthy subjects should be considered for further developments of an oral FFT for clinical purposes. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Kolovou G.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | Stamatelatou M.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | Anagnostopoulou K.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | Kostakou P.,Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center | And 6 more authors.
Open Cardiovascular Medicine Journal

Purpose: High levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with a decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Subjects with high levels of HDL cholesterol (>70 mg/dl; 1.79 mmol/l) as well as high levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, could represent a group with longevity syndrome (LS). Since HDL particles are influenced by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, it is worth studying the CETP polymorphism. The aim of the study was to detect whether 2 genetic variants of the CETP are associated with the LS. Subjects and Methods: The study population consisted of 136 unrelated men and women with no personal and family history of CHD; 69 met the criteria for LS and 67 did not meet these criteria and had "normal" HDL cholesterol (>40 and <70 mg/dl; >1.03 and <1.79 mmol/l). All patients were genotyped for the TaqIB and I405V polymorphisms. Results: The B2 allele frequency of TaqIB polymorphism was higher in the LS in comparison with the non-LS group (p=0.03) whereas B1 allele frequency was higher in the non-LS group (p=0.03). Conclusions: Gene polymorphisms could help decide whether individuals who have increased levels of both LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol require treatment. Some of the prerequisites could include that subjects with LS should not only have very high levels of HDL cholesterol but also favorable gene polymorphisms. However, further investigations with a larger sample and including other gene polymorphisms, are needed. © Kolovou et al. Source

Petanidou D.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Mihas C.,General Hospital of Kimi | Dimitrakaki C.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Kolaitis G.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Tountas Y.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Acta Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics

Aim This national study of schoolchildren in Greece investigated the association between adolescents' subjective health complaints (SHC) and a number of family characteristics. Methods Questionnaires were completed by a random, school-based sample of children from 12 to 18 years of age, and one of their parents (76.6% mothers), in 2003. Data from 1041 adolescent-parent pairs were analysed. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the associations between the adolescent's SHC and the following characteristics: parent's marital status, parent's physical and mental health status, parent's worries about their child's SHC, the parent-child relationship, family cohesion, family socio-economic status and the adolescent's sex and age. Results The analysis showed that the adolescents' SHC were independently and significantly correlated with poor parental subjective mental health status, poor quality parent-child relationships and parental worry. There were also associations between levels of SHC and female and older adolescents. Conclusion Certain family features can be seen as potential contributing factors to SHC in adolescence and should therefore constitute complementary targets for prevention and treatment planning. © 2013 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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