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Slavonski Brod, Croatia

Pavic I.,University of Zagreb | Raos M.,Srebrnjak Childrens Hospital | Aberle N.,General Hospital dr. Josip Bencevic
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: There are limited data available on interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) performance in children up to 5 years of age, with documented exposure to active tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the influence of infectivity of adult source cases on test results, (2) the impact of age, and (3) the level of agreement, between IGRA and tuberculin skin test (TST) results. METHODS: A total of 142 Bacille Calmette-Guerin-vaccinated children up to 5 years of age were investigated because of a history of exposure to active TB. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube IGRA (QFT) and TST assays were performed. RESULTS: Test results were significantly influenced by positive finding of cavitary lesions (QFT, odds ratio [OR] = 6.15; TST, OR = 7.48) and positive acid-fast bacilli (QFT, OR = 4.01; TST, OR = 4.47) in active TB contacts. QFT resulted in 1 indeterminate response (0.7%), attributable to low mitogen. There was no evidence for age having any effect on QFT performance. The 2 tests showed a moderate overall concordance (89%; κ = 0.591) at a TST cutoff value of ≥10 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Association of positive QFT and TST results with risk factors for infection in child contacts (presence of cavitary lesions and acid-fast bacilli smear positivity in index cases) suggests that both the tests have good diagnostic accuracy. However, there was significant discord between results of the 2 tests that could not be definitively resolved. Thus, in a high-risk population of children up to 5 years of age, both tests (QFT and TST) should be performed and the child should be considered infected if either or both tests are positive. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Mikolasevic I.,University of Rijeka | Racki S.,University of Rijeka | Lukenda V.,General Hospital dr. Josip Bencevic | Pavletic-Persic M.,University of Rijeka | And 2 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2014

Despite all improvements in transplant medicine, renal transplant recipients have a high risk for cardiovascular mortality. A high prevalence of cardiovascular complications in renal transplant recipients (RTR) is explained by cardiovascular risk factors present before transplantation, in addition to the development of new risk factors as well as worsening of preexisting risk factors after transplantation. A majority ot these patients develop metabolic syndrome within a year after the transplantation. The metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with impaired renal allograft function and increased insulin resistance. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a liver manifestation of metabolic syndrome and it development is strongly associated with all components of MS in general population. The current importance of NAFLD and its link to the MS has encouraged an interest in its possible role in the development of atherosclerosis in recent years. Considering the fact that all components of MS are more common among renal transplant recipients compared to general population, it would be expected that RTR may have a much higher incidence of NAFLD compared to general population. We propose that the presence of NAFLD in RTR could be a strong predictor in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Also, according to the recent investigations about the possible link between NAFLD and chronic kidney disease, we hypothesis that NAFLD may be associated with deteriorating graft function, causing a chronic allograft nephropathy and graft loss. Common factors underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD and chronic allograft dysfunction may be insulin resistance, oxidative stress, activation of rennin-angiotensin system, and inappropriate secretion of inflammatory cytokines by steatotic and inflamed liver. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Samardzic J.,General Hospital dr. Josip Bencevic
Medicinski arhiv | Year: 2010

In 10-15% of the patients that underwent cholecystectomy, common bile duct stones were found either during the preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative evaluation. Their treatment traditionally was based on open approach and extraction of calculi, with development of endoscopic procedures we have ERCP with endoscopic sphincterotomy, but due to rapid development of laparoscopic procedures now-days we have other therapeutic options such as laparoscopic transcystic extraction and laparoscopic choledohotomy. METHODS: During the period between 2007-2009 we treated 168 patients with common bile duct stones. Age range was 21-78 years, 105 female and 63 male patients. We have performed 47 open explorations, 9 laparoscopic transcystic exploration, as well as 112 ERCP and ES. We monitored the rate of success (%), intra- and postoperative complications. RESULTS: The success rate of the cases of open exploration was 95%, in 2 cases postoperative cholangiogram showed concrement residues that were successfully treated later on with ERCP+ES. Out of 9 transcystic LCBDE we have performed, in 4 cases extraction was successful, 3 patients underwent conversion into open exploration, and 2 patients were successfully treated with postoperative ERCP. A total of 69 patients were treated with ERCP and ES with the 82% success rate of stone extraction. CONCLUSION: Even though laparoscopic and endoscopic procedures have revolutionized treatment of common bile duct stones, the role of ERCP is not changed. Treatment in general hospital settings largely depends on availability of endoscopic and laparoscopic equipment and expertise, and must be individualized according to methods that are available. In our settings we have found that best summary of these demands are achieved by ERCP and laparoscopic approach.

Tijsse-Klasen E.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | Sprong H.,National Institute for Public Health and Environment RIVM | Pandak N.,General Hospital dr. Josip Bencevic
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Ixodes ricinus also carries other pathogenic bacteria, but corresponding human diseases are rarely reported. Here, we compared the exposure to Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis with that to Lyme borreliosis spirochetes. We assumed that their exposure corresponds to their infection rate in questing I. ricinus. Findings. Three Rickettsia species were detected in ticks with a total prevalence of 7.9%, of which the majority was R. helvetica (78%) and R. monacensis (21%). From the same geographic area, skin biopsies of erythema migrans patients were investigated for possible co-infections with Rickettsia spp. Forty-seven out of 67 skin biopsies were PCR positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. and one sample was positive for R. monacensis. The Borrelia genospecies from the R. monacensis positive patient was identified as Borrelia afzelii. The patient did not show any symptoms associated with rickettsiosis. Conclusions: Co-infections of I. ricinus with Rickettsia spp. and B. burgdorferi s.l. were as high as expected from the individual prevalence of both pathogens. Co-infection rate in erythema migrans patients corresponded well with tick infection rates. To our knowledge, this is the first reported co-infection of B. afzelii and R. monacensis. © 2013 Tijsse-Klasen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mikolasevic I.,University of Rijeka | Racki S.,University of Rijeka | Zaputovic L.,University of Rijeka | Lukenda V.,General Hospital dr. Josip Bencevic | And 2 more authors.
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2014

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in Western countries. Today it is believed that NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, and thus it is closely related to the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage-renal disease (ESRD). NAFLD and ESRD share some important cardiometabolic risk factors and possible common pathophyisiological mechanisms, and are linked to an increased risk of incident CVD events. We hypothesize that the coexistence of these two conditions could lead to much faster progress of the aterogenic process. Furthermore, patients with ESRD who suffer from NAFLD have a much higher risk for the development of adverse CVD events. Given the high prevalence of NAFLD, and its tight association with other manifestations of the metabolic syndrome and thus cardiovascular complications, it is important to recognize and aggressively treat this condition in ESRD patients. To evaluate this hypothesis, we propose the use of non-invasive methods such as transient elastography (TE) (Fibroscan-CAP) for the detection and quantification of liver steatosis and fibrosis, as well as an abdominal ultrasound for detecting liver steatosis. We focus on their correlation with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque as surrogate measures of increased cardiovascular risk in HD patients in order to investigate the association of NAFLD and increase risk of adverse CVD events. This evaluation will prove useful in assessing the risk in HD patients with NAFLD for increase CVD mortality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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