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Martinez-Raga J.,University of Valencia | Martinez-Raga J.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Knecht C.,Area de Salud Mental | de Alvaro R.,Hospital General
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment | Year: 2015

The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine, in its extended-release formulation (GXR), is the most recent nonstimulant medication approved in several countries for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as monotherapy and as adjunctive pharmacotherapy to stimulants in children and adolescents. The present paper aims to review comprehensively and critically the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics and the published evidence on the efficacy and safety profile of GXR in the treatment of ADHD. A comprehensive search of relevant databases (PubMed, Embase, and PsycInfo) was conducted to identify studies published in peer-reviewed journals until January 15, 2015. Though the precise mechanism of action of guanfacine in the treatment of ADHD is not fully understood, it is thought to act directly by enhancing noradrenaline functioning via α2A-adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex. Weight-adjusted doses should be used, with a dosing regime on a milligram per kilogram basis, starting at doses in the range 0.05–0.08 mg/kg/day, up to 0.12 mg/kg/day. As evidenced in short-term randomized controlled trials and in long-term open-label extension studies, GXR has been shown to be effective as monotherapy in the treatment of ADHD. Furthermore, GXR has also been found to be effective as adjunctive therapy to stimulant medications in patients with suboptimal responses to stimulants. Many of the adverse reactions associated with GXR, particularly sedation-related effects, were dose-related, transient, mild to moderate in severity, and did not interfere with attention or overall efficacy. There are no reports of serious cardiovascular adverse events associated with GXR alone or in combination with psychostimulants. © 2015 Martinez-Raga et al. Source


Dauden E.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Castaneda S.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Suarez C.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Garcia-Campayo J.,Hospital Miguel Servet | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology | Year: 2013

Background The relationship between psoriasis and associated diseases has drawn particular interest in recent years. To provide appropriate management of psoriasis from an early stage, it is necessary to include prompt diagnosis of concomitant disease and to prevent and treat any comorbidity found. Such an integrated approach also serves to ensure that the drugs used to treat associated diseases do not interfere with the management of psoriasis, and vice versa. Objective To provide the dermatologist a guide focuses specifically on the diagnosis and management of the diseases most often found in patients with psoriasis. Methods The selection of the diseases, and corresponding supporting research, to be included was based on a systematic review of the literature. The recommendations on diagnostic criteria are based on the main clinical practice guidelines for each of the diseases discussed as well as on the recommendations of a clinical expert advisory group. The information regarding the repercussions of psoriasis treatments on associated comorbid diseases was obtained from the summary of product characteristics of each drug. In turn, the statements concerning the impact of the associated diseases, and their treatment, on psoriasis are based on the review of the literature. Results This guide is a precise, easy-to-use tool for systematizing the diagnosis of comorbidity in patients with psoriasis and facilitate decision making regarding referral and treatment of patients diagnosed with an associated disease. Conclusion The application of this guide not only will benefit psoriasis patients' health and quality of life but it will also optimize available resources. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2012 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology. Source


Iglesias P.,Hospital Ramon y Cajal | Castro J.C.,Hospital General | Diez J.J.,Hospital Ramon y Cajal
International Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Background: An association between prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas and anaemia in male patients has been recently reported. Our aim has been to evaluate the prevalence of anaemia in men with prolactinomas and to assess the relationships between haemoglobin concentrations and pituitary function at diagnosis in these patients. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, 26 male patients with prolactinomas (22 macroprolactinomas and 4 microprolactinomas) were studied. Blood haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit value and baseline hormonal levels were collected at the time of prolactinoma diagnosis. The presence or absence of partial or total hypopituitarism was also evaluated at diagnosis. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the presence of anaemia as a function of serum hormone concentrations and pituitary dysfunction. Results: Patient bearing macroprolactinomas showed significant lower haemoglobin concentrations than those found in patients with microprolactinomas (13.5 ± 1.2 g/dl vs. 15.1 ± 0.9 g/dl, p < 0.05). Anaemia (haemoglobin < 13 g/dl) was present in nine (34.6%) patients, all of them with macroprolactinomas. The degree of anaemia was mild (haemoglobin > 11 g/dl) in all patients. No correlation between haemoglobin and serum prolactin was found. Haemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in men with hypogonadism (n = 14) than in eugonadal men. Haemoglobin value was also significantly lower in patients with total hypopituitarism in comparison with patients with partial hypopituitarism (12.4 ± 1.0 g/dl, n = 7 vs. 14.0 ± 1.2 g/dl, n = 13, p = 0.007). The number of affected pituitary axes was found to be related with the presence of anaemia. Logistic regression analysis showed that anaemia was related with FT4 (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.81, p = 0.02), cortisol (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.68-0.96, p = 0.02) and the presence of hypopituitarism (OR 20.0; 95% CI 1.68-238.63, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Anaemia was found in about a third of men with prolactinomas. Our results also suggest that the presence of anaemia in these patients seems to be associated with panhypopituitarism. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Iglesias P.,Hospital Ramon y Cajal | Bernal C.,Hospital Doce de Octubre | Villabona C.,Hospital Bellvitge | Castro J.C.,Hospital General | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2012

Aims To assess treatment outcome in male patients with micro- and macroprolactinomas. Design Multicentre and retrospective study. Patients Eighty-eight male patients (15 micro- and 73 macroprolactinomas), aged 40.3 ± 14.7 years, were studied. Time of follow-up ranged from 3 to 244 months. Methods Clinical, hormonal and radiological data were registered at diagnosis and follow-up. Treatment outcome was evaluated in relation to the modality of therapy (dopamine agonists, surgery and radiation therapy). Results Dopamine agonists normalized prolactin levels in 73.3% and 65.2% of patients with micro- and macroprolactinomas, respectively. Disappearance of tumour was reached in 53.3% and 28.3% of subjects with micro- and macroprolactinomas, respectively. Tumour absence at last visit was achieved in 7 of 14 patients with macroprolactinoma and treated by means of dual therapy (dopamine agonists and neurosurgery) and in 9 of 13 patients with macroprolactinoma managed with triple therapy (dopamine agonists, neurosurgery and radiation therapy). Normalization of prolactin levels at last visit was present in 68.9%, 79.6% and 69.2% of patients treated by medical therapy, dual therapy and triple therapy, respectively (differences not significant). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the time on therapy was the only significant variable related to tumour disappearance. Conclusion We conclude that medical therapy normalizes prolactin and reduces tumour size in the majority of men with prolactinomas. The addition of pituitary surgery with or without radiation therapy does not offer significant advantages over medical therapy with dopamine agonists in male patients with macroprolactinomas. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source


Izquierdo M.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Sanchez-Gomez J.M.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Ferrero De Loma-Osorio A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Martinez A.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | And 6 more authors.
Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology | Year: 2015

Background - Epicardial ablation has shown improvement in clinical outcomes of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation. However, usually epicardial access is only performed when endocardial ablation has failed. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of endocardial+epicardial ablation versus only endocardial ablation in the first procedure in patients with IHD. Methods and Results - Fifty-three patients with IHD, referred for a first VT ablation to our institution, from 2012 to 2014, were included. They were divided in 2 groups according to enrollment time: from May 2013, we started to systematically perform endo-epicardial access (Epi-Group) as first-line approach in consecutive patients with IHD (n=15). Patients who underwent only an endocardial VT ablation in their first procedure (Endo-Group) included patients with previous cardiac surgery and the historical (before May 2013; n=35). All late-potentials in the scar zone were eliminated, and if VT was tolerated, critical isthmuses were also approached. The end point was the noninducibility of any VT. During a median follow-up of 15±10 months, the combined end point (hospital or emergency admission because of a ventricular tachycardia or reablation) occurred in 14 patients of the Endo-group and in one patient in the Epi-group (event-free survival curves by Grey-test, P=0.03). Ventricular arrhythmia recurrences occurred in 16 and in 3 patients in the Endo and Epi-Group, respectively (Grey-test, P=0.2). Conclusions - A combined endocardial-epicardial ablation approach for initial VT ablation was associated with fewer readmissions for VT and repeat ablations. Further studies are warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

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