Ogawa M.,Osaka Institute of Technology |
Okimori Y.,General Environmental Technos Co.
Australian Journal of Soil Research | Year: 2010
In Asian countries, people have a long history of using rice husk charcoal or wood ash as an agricultural soil amendment, but evidence of this has been long obscured. Since the 1980s, microbiological studies, mainly on symbiotic organisms, have been performed in Japan. Charcoal is a porous material with high water and air retention capacities and high alkalinity. Therefore, it stimulates root growth and enhances the infection of various symbiotic microbes to plant partners. The use of carbonised materials in agriculture, forestry, and construction will contribute to the sustainability of crop production, soil conservation, and carbon sequestration. Biochar-related research accumulated mainly in Japan is reviewed. © CSIRO 2010.
Kimura J.-I.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology |
Gill J.B.,University of California at Santa Cruz |
Kunikiyo T.,WORLD Survey and Design Co. |
Osaka I.,IZUTEC Co. |
And 10 more authors.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2014
In response to the subduction of the young Shikoku Basin of the Philippine Sea Plate, arc magmas erupted in SW Japan throughout the late Cenozoic. Many magma types are present including ocean island basalt (OIB), shoshonite (SHO), arc-type alkali basalt (AB), typical subalkalic arc basalt (SAB), high-Mg andesite (HMA), and adakite (ADK). OIB erupted since the Japan Sea back-arc basin opened, whereas subsequent arc magmas accompanied subduction of the Shikoku Basin. However, there the origin of the magmas in relation to hot subduction is debated. Using new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope analyses of 324 lava samples from seven Quaternary volcanoes, we investigated the genetic conditions of the magma suites using a geochemical mass balance model, Arc Basalt Simulator version 4 (ABS4), that uses these data to solve for the parameters such as pressure/temperature of slab dehydration/melting and slab flux fraction, pressure, and temperature of mantle melting. The calculations suggest that those magmas originated from slab melts that induced flux melting of mantle peridotite. The suites differ mostly in the mass fraction of slab-melt flux, increasing from SHO through AB, SAB, HMA, to ADK. The pressure and temperature of mantle melting decreases in the same order. The suites differ secondarily in the ratio of altered oceanic crust to sediment in the source of the slab melt. The atypical suites associated with hot subduction result from unusually large mass fractions of slab melt and unusually cool mantle temperatures. Key Points Slab melts generate various magma types in SW Japan arc Numerical mass balance geochemical model revealed source conditions of magmas Origin of magma genesis between hot and cold subduction zones is discussed © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.
Yarita T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Otake T.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Aoyagi Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
Kuroda Y.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology |
And 6 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2014
A soybean certified reference material for pesticide residue analysis was developed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. Three organophosphorus (diazinon, fenitrothion, chlorphyrifos) and one pyrethroid (permethrin) pesticides were sprayed on soybeans three times before harvest. These soybeans were freeze pulverized, homogenized, bottled, and sterilized by γ-irradiation to prepare the candidate material. Three isotope-dilution mass spectrometric methods that varied in terms of the solvents used for extraction of the target pesticides, the clean-up procedure, and the injection techniques and columns used for quantification via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were applied to the characterization. Each target pesticide was quantified by two of these analytical methods, and the results were in good agreement. Homogeneity and stability assessment of the material demonstrated that the relative standard uncertainties due to the inhomogeneity and the instability for an expiry date of 55 months were 1.89-4.00% and 6.65-11.5%, respectively. The certified pesticide concentrations with expanded uncertainties (coverage factor k=2, approximate 95% confidence interval) calculated using the results of the characterization and the homogeneity and stability assessment were 21.7±3.2 μg/kg for diazinon, 88±21 μg/kg for fenitrothion, 11.1±3.2 μg/kg for chlorpyrifos, and 20.1±4.3 μg/kg for permethrin (as the sum of the constituent isomers). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Fujioka M.,Japan Coal Energy Center |
Yamaguchi S.,Akita University |
Nako M.,General Environmental Technos Co
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2010
The feasibility of extracting gas from coal seam while storing carbon dioxide underground was evaluated in Japan. A CO2-ECBM project had begun near the town of Yubari on the island of Hokkaido in northern Japan. The primary coal seam of interest was a 5-6m thick Yubari coal seam located at the depth of 900m. A micro-pilot test with a single well and multi-well CO2 injection tests, involving an injection and production wells, were carried out in the period between May 2004 and October 2007. There were a variety of tests conducted in the injection well, including an initial water injection fall-off test and a series of CO2 injection and fall-off tests. Although gas production rate was obviously enhanced by CO2 injection, water production rate was not clearly affected by CO2 injection. Several injection tests suggested that injectivity of CO2 into the virgin coal seam saturated with water was eventually increased as the water saturation near the injector was decreased by the injected CO2. It was estimated that low injectivity of CO2 was caused by the reduction in permeability induced by coal swelling. N2 flooding test was performed in 2006 to evaluate the effectiveness of N2 injection on improving well injectivity. The N2 flooding test showed that daily CO2 injection rate was boosted, but only temporarily. Moreover, the permeability did not return to the initial value after CO2 and N2 were repeatedly injected. It was also indicated that the coal matrix swelling might create a high stress zone near to the injection well. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Moriizumi Y.,Yokohama National University |
Matsui N.,General Environmental Technos Co. |
Hondo H.,Yokohama National University
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2010
Sustainable mangrove management needs to consider trade-offs between multiple benefits provided by mangrove ecosystems and to balance the conflicting objectives of various stakeholders. The aim of the present study is to assess the sustainability of mangrove management based on the life cycle approach. We examine two mangrove management systems in Thailand, namely, the strict preservation and charcoal production systems. The results show that the strict preservation system has an advantage over the charcoal production system from the environmental perspective (the net amount of CO2 absorbed by mangroves) while the charcoal production is a more favorable system than strict preservation from the social perspective (the amount of employment created in local communities). On the other hand, it is difficult to say that both systems are sustainable from an economic aspect. The charcoal production system needs to develop improved management regimes for commercial charcoal production and requires financial assistance in the period when its net cash flows are negative. As solutions for these problems, the introduction of community forest management and the utilization of a fund for REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Developing Countries) can be proposed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Watanabe Y.,Japan Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth |
Tait K.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory |
Gregory S.,British Geological Survey |
Hayashi M.,General Environmental Technos Co. |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2015
The impact of a sub-seabed CO2 leak from geological sequestration on the microbial process of ammonia oxidation was investigated in the field. Sediment samples were taken before, during and after a controlled sub-seabed CO2 leak at four zones differing in proximity to the CO2 source (epicentre, and 25 m, 75 m, and 450 m distant). The impact of CO2 release on benthic microbial ATP levels was compared to ammonia oxidation rates and the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia amoA genes and transcripts, and also to the abundance of nitrite oxidizer (nirS) and anammox hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) genes and transcripts. The major factor influencing measurements was seasonal: Only minor differences were detected at the zones impacted by CO2 (epicentre and 25 m distant). This included a small increase to ammonia oxidation after 37 days of CO2 release which was linked to an increase in ammonia availability as a result of mineral dissolution. A CO2 leak on the scale used within this study (<1 tonne day-1) would have very little impact to ammonia oxidation within coastal sediments. However, seawater containing 5% CO2 did reduce rates of ammonia oxidation. This was linked to the buffering capacity of the sediment, suggesting that the impact of a sub-seabed leak of stored CO2 on ammonia oxidation would be dependent on both the scale of the CO2 release and sediment type. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Orihara T.,Tottori University |
Sawada F.,2 11 12 Tsujido taiheidai |
Ikeda S.,Forest Development Technological Institute |
Yamato M.,General Environmental Technos Co. |
And 5 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2010
During taxonomic revision of genus Octaviania in Japan we examined herbarium and fresh specimens of O. columellifera and O. asterosperma sensu S. Yoshimi & Y. Doi with morphological and molecular techniques. These two species were identical in both macro- and micromorphological characters and were clearly different from the generally known O. asterosperma. The identity of the two species and their distinctness from O. asterosperma was further supported by both nuclear large subunit and ITS rDNA phylogeny. The molecular analyses also revealed that O. columellifera shares its lineage with the boletoid mushroom-forming Xerocomus chrysenteron complex and that it does not form a monophyletic clade with other Octaviania species. Our morphological reevaluation, including transmission electron microscopic observation of basidiospores, clarified the taxonomic boundary between O. columellifera and other Japanese Octaviania species. Accordingly we propose a new genus, Heliogaster, for O. columellifera with designation of the lectotype. We discuss phylogenetic relationships with Octaviania sensu stricto species and the closely related boletoid (pileate-stipitate) fungi, generic characters of Helio-gaster and intraspecific phylogeny. © 2010 by The Mycological Society of America.
Wang S.Q.,Nagoya University |
Ishizaka J.,Nagoya University |
Yamaguchi H.,Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency |
Tripathy S.C.,National Institute of Oceanography of India |
And 6 more authors.
Biogeosciences | Year: 2014
Phytoplankton light absorption properties were investigated at the surface and subsurface chlorophyll a maximum (SCM) layer in the East China Sea (ECS), a marginal sea which is strongly influenced by the Changjiang discharge in summer. Results from ECS were compared with those from the Tsushima Strait (TS) where the influence of Changjiang discharge is less. The probable controlling factors, packaging effect (cell size) and pigment composition of total chlorophyll a (Tchl a)-specific absorption coeffi-cient (aph(λ)) were examined by the corresponding measurements of pigments identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed distinct phytoplankton size structure and thereby absorption properties between ECS and TS. At the surface, mixed populations of micro-, nanoand pico-phytoplankton were recorded in ECS while picophytoplankton dominated in TS, generating a lower average a ph(λ) in ECS than in TS. Within SCM, average a ph(λ) was higher in ECS than in TS because of the dominance of nano-and micro-phytoplankton in ECS and TS, respectively. By pooling surface and SCM samples, we found regular trends in phytoplankton size-fraction versus Tchl a; and correlations between aph(λ) and Tchl a consistent with previous observations for the global ocean in TS but not in ECS. In ECS phytoplankton size-fraction was not correlated with Tchl a, which consequently caused poor relationships between aph(λ) and Tchl a. The abnormal values mainly originated from the surface low-salinity waters and SCM waters beneath them. At high Tchl a, aph(λ) of these samples was substantially higher compared to the values in TS and from the global regressions, which was attributable to the lower micro-phytoplankton fraction, and higher nano-and/or pico-phytoplankton fractions in ECS. These observations indicated that the distinct light absorption properties of phytoplankton in ECS were possibly influenced by the Changjiang discharge. Our findings imply that general bio-optical algorithms proposed based on the correlations between a ph(λ) and Tchl a or the patterns in size-fraction versus Tchl a are not applicable in ECS, and need to be carefully considered when using these general algorithms in river-influenced regions. © Author(s) 2014.
Ishida H.,General Environmental Technos Co. |
Golmen L.G.,Norwegian Institute for Water Research |
Golmen L.G.,Runde Environmental Center |
West J.,British Geological Survey |
And 6 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) methods, either sub-seabed or in ocean depths, introduces risk of CO2 leakage and subsequent interaction with the ecosystem. It is therefore important to obtain information on possible effects of CO2. In situ CO2 exposure experiments were carried out twice for 10days during 2005 using a Benthic Chamber system at 400m depth in Storfjorden, Norway. pCO2 in the water above the sediment in the chambers was controlled at approximately 500, 5000 and 20,000μatm, respectively. This article describes the experiment and the results from measured the biological responses within the chamber sediments. The results show effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on biological processes such as increased nanobenthos density. Methane production and sulphate reduction was enhanced in the approximately 5000μatm chamber. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Blackford J.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory |
Stahl H.,Scottish Association for Marine Science |
Bull J.M.,UK National Oceanography Center |
Berges B.J.P.,University of Southampton |
And 25 more authors.
Nature Climate Change | Year: 2014
Fossil fuel power generation and other industrial emissions of carbon dioxide are a threat to global climate, yet many economies will remain reliant on these technologies for several decades. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations provides an effective option to remove these emissions from the climate system. In many regions storage reservoirs are located offshore, over a kilometre or more below societally important shelf seas. Therefore, concerns about the possibility of leakage and potential environmental impacts, along with economics, have contributed to delaying development of operational CCS. Here we investigate the detectability and environmental impact of leakage from a controlled sub-seabed release of CO2 . We show that the biological impact and footprint of this small leak analogue (<1 tonne CO2 d â '1) is confined to a few tens of metres. Migration of CO2 through the shallow seabed is influenced by near-surface sediment structure, and by dissolution and re-precipitation of calcium carbonate naturally present in sediments. Results reported here advance the understanding of environmental sensitivity to leakage and identify appropriate monitoring strategies for full-scale carbon storage operations. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.