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Lai S.-L.,Center for General Education | Chen H.-J.H.,National Taiwan Normal University
Computer Assisted Language Learning

A number of studies have suggested the possible benefits of using concordancers in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) writing. To date, however, there is still limited understanding of how EFL writers may make use of such tools along with dictionaries when engaging in a writing task. To better understand the question, this study investigated a class of non-English-major college students (N = 14) over a semester. Four online corpus tools, including monolingual and bilingual concordancers and collocation retrieval systems, were provided, along with two online dictionaries. After two tool-training sessions, students performed three timed-writing tasks online during three consecutive months and received individual stimulus recall interviews after each writing task. The recall interviews served as the main source of data; other data included the video clips of the writing process, student writing samples, and the researchers’ notes. The result showed that students used corpus tools and the bilingual dictionary for different purposes. They tended to use a bilingual dictionary when information on word form and word meaning was needed. When searching for information related to word usage, collocation information, and grammar patterns, they chose corpus tools more often than a bilingual dictionary. However, they also turned to corpus tools for meaning and form when the bilingual dictionary failed to provide clear word meanings, when they needed to search for word strings, and when they needed to just confirm an intuition regarding either word form or word meaning. This study provides empirical data that help to better understand how corpus tools contribute to EFL writing. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Chen H.-T.,China Medical University at Taichung | Chen H.-T.,Feng Chia University | Tsou H.-K.,Feng Chia University | Tsou H.-K.,Center for General Education | And 2 more authors.

Background: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been demonstrated to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and participated bone remodeling. Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoglycoprotein that belongs to the SIBLING family and is present during bone mineralization. However, the effects of HGF on OPN expression in human osteoblasts are large unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we found that HGF induced OPN expression in human osteoblasts dose-dependently. HGF-mediated OPN production was attenuated by c-Met inhibitor and siRNA. Pretreatment of osteoblasts with PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002), Akt inhibitor, c-Src inhibitor (PP2), or AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin) blocked the potentiating action of HGF. Stimulation of osteoblasts with HGF enhanced PI3K, Akt, and c-Src activation. In addition, incubation of cells with HGF also increased c-Jun phosphorylation, AP-1-luciferase activity, and c-Jun binding to the AP-1 element on the OPN promoter. HGF-mediated AP-1-luciferase activity and c-Jun binding to the AP-1 element was reduced by c-Met inhibitor, Ly294002, Akt inhibitor, and PP2. Conclusions/Significance: Our results suggest that the interaction between HGF and c-Met increases OPN expression in human osteoblasts via the PI3K, Akt, c-Src, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathway. © 2012 Chen et al. Source

Wen S.-Y.,Taipei Medical University Hospital | Wen S.-Y.,Center for General Education | Liu W.-L.,Taipei Medical University Hospital | Liu W.-L.,National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences

BACKGROUND: There are limited population-based data regarding pediatric herpes zoster (HZ). abstract METHODS: Children aged < 12 years with varicella infections between 2000 and 2006 were identified from a national population-based database and followed-up for a diagnosis of HZ until December 2008. Since a routine varicella vaccination program was started in 2004, vaccinated children without medically attended varicella were identified between 2004 and 2006, and followed-up for a diagnosis of HZ until December 2008. RESULTS: Of 27 517 children with medically attended varicella, 428 developed HZ. The incidence of HZ was 262.1 per 100 000 person-years. Of 25 132 vaccinated children without medically attended varicella, 106 developed HZ. The incidence of HZ was 93.3 per 100 000 person-years. The mean duration from varicella to HZ was 4.12 years. Children diagnosed with varicella at aged ,< 2 years had a higher incidence (P , < .001) and shorter duration (P = .04) than those diagnosed aged ≥ 2 years. Children diagnosed with varicella aged ≥ 2 but < 8 years had a significantly increased incidence of HZ after than before the vaccination program (relative risk = 1.85 at 3 years of follow-up, P = .03). Children with varicella infections had a significantly greater risk of HZ than vaccinated children without a history of varicella (relative risk = 2.31 at 4 years of follow-up, P ,< .001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the population-based epidemiologic characteristics of pediatric HZ among those who contracted varicella. In the early postvaricella vaccination period, an increased HZ incidence was observed among children with varicella infection aged ≥2 years. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between PM2.5, synoptic weather patterns, and admissions for circulatory and respiratory disease. A PM2.5 event is defined as a day when the daily mean PM2.5 concentration exceeds 65g/m3. PM2.5 events that coincided with the occurrence of PM attributed to Asian dust storm (ADS) and photochemical smog (PCS) were removed from the study in order to focus solely on the health effects from PM2.5. A one-tailed z-test and a relative risk (RR) estimate were performed. Hospital admissions for respiratory diseases were greater than those for circulatory diseases, and asthma-related diseases had a higher impact in the Adults group, and the maximum RR was 1.94 [1.37 2.77] on the first day after the event. It is evident that PM2.5 episodes connected to particular synoptic weather patterns pose a risk to health as large as ADS and PCS events. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

Yu W.-W.,Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital | Hsieh P.-P.,Center for General Education | Chuang S.-S.,Chi Mei Medical Center | Chuang S.-S.,Taipei Medical University
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology

Primary cutaneous γδ T-cell lymphoma and extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL), nasal type are two distinct lymphoma entities in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. We report the case of an aggressive cutaneous lymphoma of γδ T-cell origin showing overlapping features of both lymphomas. A 78-year-old female presented with confluent erythematous plaques with ulcerations over her right thigh. Microscopically, section of the skin showed a diffuse dermal and subcutaneous lymphocytic infiltration with tumor necrosis and angioinvasion. The medium- to large-sized tumor cells expressed CD3, CD8, cytotoxic molecules and T-cell receptor (TCR)-? but not CD4, CD20, CD30, CD56 or ßF1. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded mRNA (EBER) was diffusely positive. Polymerase chain reaction-based clonality assay showed a clonal TCR-γ chain gene rearrangement. The features compatible with γδ T-cell lymphoma include dermal and subcutaneous involvements, cytotoxic phenotype, expression of TCR-γ, as well as an aggressive course. On the other hand, the diffuse EBER positivity, angioinvasion, tumor necrosis and cytotoxic phenotype may also fit in the diagnosis of an ENKTL of T-cell lineage. We review the literature on EBER-positive γδ T-cell lymphoma and discuss the diagnostic dilemma using the current WHO classification system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

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