General Education Center

Tainan, Taiwan

General Education Center

Tainan, Taiwan
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Chen P.-Y.,Providence University | Chi Y.-M.,Providence University | Yang H.-H.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital | Yang H.-H.,General Education Center | Shih Y.,Providence University
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

This paper describes an easy-to-prepare and disposable sulfite sensor using a phenothiazine drop-coated screen printed carbon electrode (PhSPCE) in couple with flow injection analysis. It was found that the PhSPCE possesses electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of sulfite with relatively high sensitivity, selectivity, good stability and reproducibility. The linear working range for the determination of sulfite was 0.6 ppm to 200 ppm with a detection limit of 0.28 ppm. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in real samples. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Liu K.F.-R.,Ming Chi University of Technology | Lu C.-F.,Da - Yeh University | Chen C.-W.,National Kaohsiung Marine University | Shen Y.-S.,General Education Center
Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment | Year: 2012

The health risk of noncarcinogenic substances is usually represented by the hazard quotient (HQ) or target organ-specific hazard index (TOSHI). However, three problems arise from these indicators. Firstly, the HQ overestimates the health risk of noncarcinogenic substances for non-critical organs. Secondly, the TOSHI makes inappropriately the additive assumption for multiple hazardous substances affecting the same organ. Thirdly, uncertainty of the TOSHI undermines the accuracy of risk characterization. To address these issues, this article proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBN) for health risk assessment (HRA) and the procedure involved is developed using the example of road constructions. According to epidemiological studies and using actual hospital attendance records, the BBN-HRA can specifically identify the probabilistic relationship between an air pollutant and each of its induced disease, which can overcome the overestimation of the HQ for non-critical organs. A fusion technique of conditional probabilities in the BBN-HRA is devised to avoid the unrealistic additive assumption. The use of the BBN-HRA is easy even for those without HRA knowledge. The input of pollution concentrations into the model will bring more concrete information on the morbidity and mortality rates of all the related diseases rather than a single score, which can reduce the uncertainty of the TOSHI. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Chen L.,General Education Center | Pai T.-Y.,National Taichung University of Education
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In this study, exact radial basis function neural network (ERBFNN) was used to predict the concrete compressive strength based on physical properties of electric arc furnace oxidizing slag. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was used to evaluate the predicting performance. The results indicated the minimum MAPE of 0.08 % and 5.28 % could be achieved when training and predicting, respectively. According to the results, it revealed that ERBFNN was an efficiently tool for providing information. © 2014 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Chen L.,General Education Center | Pai T.-Y.,National Taichung University of Education
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze and classify the electric arc furnace oxidizing slag based on physical properties. The results indicated that about 91.44 % information could be explained using the previous four PC. The Los Angeles abrasion test (LAAT) and loss of sodium sulfate soundness test (LSSST) mainly contributed to the first PC, meanwhile the saturated surface-dry specific gravity (SSDSG) contributed mainly to the second PC. The significant physical properties of EAF slag including LAAT, LSSST, and SSDSG could be identified according to PCA. According to the two dimension classification using PC1 and PC2, the 60 samples could be approximately classified into two groups. They could be also classified into two groups in three dimension classification. © 2014 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Chen L.,General Education Center | Pai T.-Y.,National Taichung University of Education
Atmospheric Pollution Research | Year: 2015

This paper represents the first study to compare seven types of first-order and one-variable grey differential equation model [abbreviated as GM (1, 1)] and back-propagation artificial neural network (BPNN) for predicting hourly particulate matter (PM) including PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in Dali area of Taichung City, Taiwan. Their prediction performance was also compared. The results indicated that the minimum mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean squared error (MSE), and root mean squared error (RMSE) was 16.76%, 132.95, and 11.53, respectively for PM10 prediction. For PM2.5 prediction, the minimum MAPE, MSE, and RMSE value of 21.64%, 40.41, and 6.36, respectively could be achieved. All statistical values revealed that the predicting performance of GM (1, 1, x(0)), GM (1, 1, a), and GM (1, 1, b) outperformed other GM (1, 1) models. According to the results, it revealed that GM (1, 1) could predict the hourly PM variation precisely even comparing with BPNN. © Author(s) 2015.


Hsu J.-W.,General Education Center | Huang D.-W.,Chung Yuan Christian University
Scientometrics | Year: 2016

In this work, we propose the graphical representation for the empirical data of the impact factor rank-ordered distribution. The characteristics of the distribution can be directly visualized. Within the subject category of journal citation reports, the impact factor rank-ordered distribution systematically presents a clear evidence of the two-exponent behavior and the S-shaped decrease. The sharp convex decrease is related to the first exponent, which dictates the distribution of lower ranks. The mild concave decrease is related to the second exponent, which dictates the distribution of higher ranks. The relevance of Matthew effect is discussed. © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary


Hsieh M.-C.,Tzu Chi University | Hsieh M.-C.,Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital | Yang S.-C.,General Education Center | Tseng H.-L.,Tzu Chi University | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2010

Objectives: Physiological and behavioral circadian rhythmicities are exhibited by all mammals and are generated by intracellular levels of circadian oscillators, which are composed of transcriptional/translational feedback loops involving a set of circadian-clock genes, such as Clock, Per1-3, Cry1-2, Bmal1, Dbp, E4BP4 and CK1. These circadian-clock genes play important roles in regulating circadian rhythms and also energy homeostasis and metabolism. Determining whether obesity induced by high-fat diet affected the expressions of circadian-clock genes and their related genes in peripheral tissues, was the main focus of this study. To address this issue, we fed male C57BL/6 mice a high-fat diet for 11 months to induce obesity, hyperglycemic, hypercholesterolemic and hyperinsulinemic symptoms, and used quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR to measure gene expression levels.Results: We found that the expressions of circadian-clock genes and circadian clock-controlled genes, including Per1-3, Cry1-2, Bmal1, Dbp, E4BP4, CK1, PEPCK, PDK4 and NHE3, were altered in the livers and/or kidneys.Conclusions: These results indicate that obesity induced by high-fat diet alters the circadian-clock system, and obesity and metabolic syndrome are highly correlated with the expressions of circadian-clock genes and their downstream, circadian clock-controlled genes. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.


Yang S.-C.,General Education Center | Tseng H.-L.,Tzu Chi University | Shieh K.-R.,Tzu Chi University
Chronobiology International | Year: 2013

Circadian rhythms are exhibited in the physiological and behavioral processes of all mammals; they are generated by intracellular levels of circadian oscillators, which are named as a set of circadian-clock genes. These genes compose the transcriptional/translational feedback loops to regulate not only circadian rhythmicity, but also energy metabolism. Previous studies have shown that obesity and diabetes cause the dysregulation of the circadian-clock system, and vice versa. However, some diabetes subjects are lean with insulin resistance and the mechanisms of insulin resistance without obesity are much less well known. Therefore, whether insulin resistance alone is enough to influence the expression of circadian-clock genes is uncertain. This study employs a neonatal streptozotocin (STZ)-treated paradigm in mice to model the molecular and physiological progress of nonobese insulin resistance. A single injection of STZ into 2-d-old male C57BL/6 mice induces nonobese, hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic conditions, and the levels of gene expression in the liver by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction are then measured. Although the levels of Bmal1 (brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1), Per2 (period 2), and Cry1 (cryptochrome 1) mRNA expression in the liver change during the progress of insulin resistance conditions, the gene expression patterns still show circadian rhythmicity. This study suggests that changes in the hepatic circadian-clock gene expression mark an early event in the metabolic disruption associated with insulin resistance. Furthermore, 2 wks of treatment with the thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, fully resolve the dysfunction in metabolic parameters and the changes in circadian-clock gene expression from early insulin resistance conditions. These results indicate that the circadian-clock system is sensitive to insulin resistance, and that treatment with thiazolidinediones can resolve changes in the circadian-clock system in a timely manner. Thus, strengthening the peripheral circadian-clock system may counteract the adverse physiological consequences in the metabolic syndrome. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Hsiao C.H.,General Education Center
International Journal of Computer Mathematics | Year: 2010

The analysis of time-varying functional differential equations via wavelets is proposed in this paper. At first, based upon some useful properties of wavelets, a special product matrix and a related coefficient matrix are applied to deal with the time-varying part. Then the wavelet stretch matrix is introduced to deal with the functional part. The unknown wavelet coefficient matrix will be found in the generalized Lyapunov equation. The local property of wavelets is completely applied to shorten the calculation process in the task.


Shieh K.-R.,Tzu Chi University | Yang S.-C.,General Education Center | Tseng H.-L.,Tzu Chi University | Yi C.-H.,Tzu Chi University | And 2 more authors.
Current Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Purinergic receptors are implicated in nociceptive signaling in small primary afferents via activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP appears to mediate HCl-induced transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) activation in esophageal mucosa. Up-regulation of TRPV1 expression in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with increased nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). This study aims to genetically determine the expression of purinergic receptors in severe inflamed human esophagus. Distal esophageal biopsies from the subjects with erosive GERD, asymptomatic patients (AP) and healthy ones were examined. Using real-time qPCR for detecting purinergic receptors (P2X2, P2X3, P2X7, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6and P2Y12), TRPV1, TRPV4, NGF, and GDNF was done in this study. Both P2X3and P2X7 mRNA expressions in GERD patients significantly increased than those in healthy controls (P < 0.001) and AP (P < 0.001), but P2X2, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y12or P2Y12 had no difference within the control, AP or GERD subjects. The well correlated expression in P2X3 gene with TRPV1 (r = 0.46, P = 0.002), NGF (r = 0.54, P = 0.0002), and GDNF (r = 0.64, P = 0.0001) was found. The P2X7 gene expressions also well correlated with TRPV1 (r = 0.47, P = 0.002), NGF (r = 0.32, P = 0.037), and GDNF (r = 0.42, P = 0.005). These results suggest that chronic esophagitis increases mRNA expressions of P2X3and P2X7 receptors accompanied by up-regulation of TRPV1 and neurotrophic factors (NGF and GDNF). These genetical alterations in esophageal mucosa might mediate sensitization of inflamed human esophagus. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

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