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Topal M.,General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works | Arslan Topal E.I.,Firat University
Environmental monitoring and assessment | Year: 2015

The aims of this study are to investigate the fate of tetracycline (TC) and degradation products (DPs) in municipal biological wastewater treatment plant (MBWWTP) located in Elazığ City (Turkey) and to determine the occurrence and transport of TC and DPs in surface water (SW) (Kehli Stream) which the effluents of the plant discharged. The aqueous phase removal of TC, 4-epitetracycline (ETC), 4-epianhydrotetracycline (EATC), and anhydrotetracycline (ATC) in the studied treatment plant was 39.4 ± 1.9, 31.8 ± 1.5, 15.1 ± 0.7, and 16.9 ± 0.8%, respectively. According to the analyses' results of SW samples taken from downstream at every 500-m distance, TC and DPs decreased by the increase in the distance. In downstream, at 2000 m, TC, ETC, EATC, and ATC were 4.12 ± 0.20, 6.70 ± 0.33, 8.31 ± 0.41, and 3.57 ± 0.17 μg/L, respectively. As a result, antibiotic pollution in the SW that takes the effluent of MBWWTP exists.


Topal M.,General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

In this study, tetracycline (TC) and degradation products in Phragmites australis grown in Kehli stream carrying municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were determined. P. australis plants are spread along Kehli stream. The concentrations of TC and degradation products were determined in roots, stems and leaves of the plants. Maximum TC, 4-epitetracycline (ETC), 4-epianhydrotetracycline (EATC) and anhydrotetracycline (ATC) concentrations were 31.5 ± 1.5, 46.1 ± 2.3, 27.0 ± 1.3 and 16.5 ± 0.8. ppb, respectively in roots while 8.3 ± 0.4, 9.99 ± 0.49, 6.6 ± 0.3 and 4.69 ± 0.23. ppb, respectively in stems. Maximum TC, ETC, EATC and ATC concentrations were 4.74 ± 0.23, 5.58 ± 0.28, 2.96 ± 0.15 and 3.71 ± 0.18. ppb, respectively in leaves. As a result, it was determined that P. australis plants uptake TC and degradation products. The decreasing uptake order of P. australis was determined as ETC. >. TC. >. EATC. >. ATC. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Topal M.,General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works | Uslu Senel G.,Firat University | Obek E.,Firat University | Topal A.,Firat University
Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy | Year: 2015

The aims of this study were the determination of (i) tetracycline (TC) and the degradation products removal efficiency of Elaziʇ Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (ii) the removal of TC and the degradation products in a pilot scale constructed wetland reactor planted with Lemna gibba L., which takes the effluent of the treatment plant (iii) the comparison of the removal of TC and the degradation products in the treatment plant and pilot scale reactor and (iv) the contribution of the planted rector to the treatment plant in terms of removal of TC and the degradation products. For these aims, composite samples were taken from both the influent and effluent of the treatment plant and the pilot scale reactor and then TC and degradation products analyses were done by UFLC/MS-MS. TC, 4-epianhydrotetacycline (EATC) and anhydrotetracycline (ATC) removal efficiencies of the treatment plant were determined as 79.65, 64.42, and 80.19%, respectively. 4-epitetracycline (ETC) removal efficiency was not seen. TC, ETC, EATC, and ATC removal efficiencies in the planted reactor were obtained as 55.42, 89.85, 39.31 and 63.42%, respectively. The data obtained from the results of the analyses were also evaluated statistically. As a result, it was seen that Lemna gibba L. was efficient to remove TC and the degradation products and improved the treatment plant TC and the degradation products removal efficiency. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 34: 1311-1321, 2015 © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.


Sengul C.E.,General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works | Aksoy A.,Eurasian University | Iskender E.,Karadeniz Technical University | Ozen H.,Florida International University
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2012

The aim of study is to evaluate rutting with Marshall Quotient (MQ) and repeated creep (RCT). Three hydrated lime (HL) mixtures were evaluated and compared with control mixtures (CMs) for conditioned samples (CSs). Filler was reduced and HL was substituted at 2%, 4% and 6%. Damage system (ECS) based on moisture was applied. For rutting with MQ approach also some mixtures were produced including SBS and HL. Modified and synergistic (SBS and HL) mixtures were interrogated. An observed damage level was exposed with the selected ECS. RCT was quite effective at different HL ratios for HL efficiency for dense gradation. HL was found beneficial due to moisture. Increasing of HL from 2% to 6% deformation resistance increased. Tertiary deformation was not revealed at 64,730 pulses for CM and HL ones. Expected results were obtained with the RCT for both HL mixtures and also SBS. MQ is not a good indicator of the deformation resistance because of the larger intervals between CM and others. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Akcanca F.,General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works | Aytekin M.,University of Bahrain
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

In this study, an investigation was performed to determine if lime-stabilized sand-bentonite mixtures are appropriate for the construction of sanitary landfills liners. For this aim, the hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted in the laboratory on sand-bentonite mixtures and lime-stabilized sand-bentonite mixtures to evaluate the effect of wetting-drying cycles. The hydraulic conductivity tests were performed to see if their hydraulic conductivities are affected by wetting-drying cycles. First series of specimens have been prepared as a mixture of sand and bentonite only. In the first series of specimens, sand was mixed with bentonite in proportions of 20, 30, 40, and 50 %. In the second series of the specimens, lime in proportions of 1, 2 and 3 % by weight was added to the mixtures of sand-bentonite in proportions of 20, 30, 40, and 50 %. From the results of the tests, it was observed that while optimum water content increased, maximum dry density decreased with addition of lime to the sand-bentonite mixtures. Generally, the hydraulic conductivity increased with the addition of lime to the mixtures but at low percentages of lime (1-2 %), however, slight decreases in k were recorded. It was also observed that the wetting-drying cycles on the permeability test indicate cure effect on specimens with addition of lime which resulted in decreased the hydraulic conductivity. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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