General Directorate of Food and Control

Ankara, Turkey

General Directorate of Food and Control

Ankara, Turkey
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Alkan M.,General Directorate of Food and Control | Cokcalskan C.,SAP | Bulut A.N.,SAP | Arslan A.,SAP | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine Reports | Year: 2016

The first vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) has long been carried out when the calves reach 4 months of age in Turkey. But it is believed that this strategy creates a gap in herd immunity because almost fifteen percent of the cattle population consists of animals younger than 4 months old. Fifty-four calves aged 9 to 114 days were used in this study. The calves were divided into 5 groups. All of the animals were bled on day 0. Oil adjuvant FMD vaccine, containing the O1/Manisa, A22/Iraq and Asia-1/Shamir strains, was administered twice to Groups I-IV with a one-month interval between administrations. Group V was not vaccinated to monitor maternal antibody titer changes. The maternal antibody levels decreased in all strains in Group-V in a manner dependent on time. Antibody titers against strains O and Asia-1 increased after the first vaccination in Groups III and IV but decreased in Groups I and II. However, in all groups, the mean antibody levels continued or started to increase after booster vaccination. It was concluded that in endemic countries, calves that are born to vaccinated dams and that receive colostrum during the first hours of life should be vaccinated at 2 to 2.5 months of age, and a booster vaccination should be implemented for better protection. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Yuncu E.,Middle East Technical University | Demirci S.,Middle East Technical University | Koban Bastanlar E.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Dogan T.A.,Middle East Technical University | And 2 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2013

There are five (A-E) identified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (HPGs) in domestic sheep. In search of a quick and reliable HPG classification, three different molecular approaches were tested: the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method applied to mtDNA control region (CR), the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method applied to NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (MT-ND2) and to NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (MT-ND4) regions. The results were evaluated comparatively to elucidate their power in discriminating the sheep mtDNA HPGs. For this purpose, the HPGs of 622 domestic sheep all from Turkey, hence from the genetic diversity hot spot of domestic sheep distribution were examined using these three approaches. The HPGs for some of the individuals (n = 240) were also obtained based on CR sequences. The SSCP analysis of the MT-ND2 region (by identifying HPGs as A, B, C/E and D) exhibited higher discrimination power, sensitivity and specificity in HPG classification when compared with the SSCP analysis of MT-ND4 region and RFLP analysis of CR. In conclusion, to identify the mtDNA HPGs of sheep, and especially to identify the rare HPGs (D and E), first screening the individuals by MT-ND2 SSCP and then sequencing the CR of only those individuals revealing C/E HPGs (mixed strategy of genotyping) may be preferred when sequencing is not easily available. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Dusunceli F.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Stocchi A.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Scaduto C.,Food and Agriculture Organization | Mancini F.,Food and Agriculture Organization | And 10 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin | Year: 2015

Rust diseases (Puccinia spp.), namely stripe, leaf and stem rusts, are among the major diseases of wheat. Their management requires integrated approaches including timely surveillance, speedy communication and rapid response. This surveillance system was developed in order to facilitate participation of extension offices (in provinces/districts) in the survey of wheat rust diseases and sharing of information quickly. The SMS based system was tested as a pilot tool in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey connecting 25 districts in 5 provinces through an SMS network during the rust development period (April-July) in 2013. The observations from 268 fields indicated that leaf rust and stem rust development was insignificant in the districts covered, occurring in only 2.3% and 1.9% of the fields respectively. Stripe rust prevalence was higher occurring in 44.8% of the fields. Of the inspected fields 2.5% had infected plant incidences between 15% and 40% requiring control measures. Using the SMS reports received from the extension officers, the system facilitated daily monitoring of rust development and exchange of observations among the relevant institutions, also sending out alert messages to designated authorities as necessary. The study demonstrated that the system can serve as a rapid surveillance and communication tool to facilitate timely decision making and rapid response to prevent wheat rust epidemics. © 2015 Organisation Européenne et Méditerranéenne pour la Protection des Plantes/European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

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