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Tan A.S.,Aegean Agricultural Research Institute | Tan A.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy
Helia | Year: 2011

Plant genetic resources are currently of great interest since they are related to the satisfaction of people's basic needs and to the solution of severe problems such as hunger and poverty. Turkey is one of the significant countries for the plant genetic resources and plant diversity. The conservation of plant genetic resources is necessary for the sustainable protection of genetic diversity, since Turkey encompasses areas of major centers of crop diversity and the centre of origin for globally significant crops, fodder plants and forages. Landraces of many of these crops are still used within traditional farming systems and pastures. Wild relatives and endemic species of the crop are found in their natural habitats in the rangelands and forest areas which occupy different ecosystems. The flora of Turkey consists of high endemism, about 3000 out of 9500 plant species. Turkey is described as microcenters for many crops also. The importance of the protection of existing plant diversity is highly recognized and various conservation programs exist. The National Plant Genetic Resources and Plant Diversity Program (NPGRDP) operate under the coordination of Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) involves ex situ (since beginning of 1960s) as well as in situ conservation, including on farm conservation (since 1990s). The new uniform and high yielding varieties used in modern agriculture causes the erosion of genetic diversity of landraces, old and local cultivars. The collection and characterization of those genetic resources become very essential. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops for Turkey and sunflower landraces have significant diversity in Turkey as being one of the "Centres of Diversity" for sunflower. The existing sunflower landraces were collected within the framework of NPGRDP and maintained long term as ex situ at National Gene Bank and characterized for better understanding of the eco-geographic variation of sunflower landraces throughout the region, as well as for assessing sustainable utilization of those collections. The genetic resources of Turkey, eco-geographical distribution of sunflower lan-draces and the characterization result of agro-morphological variation of National sunflower collection are presented. Source

The effects of the residues of sulfosulfuron (75%) and mesosulfuron methyl (3%) + iodosulfuron methyl sodium (0.6%) (MM+IMS), applied at two spraying times and three application rates on two sunflower cultivars (Helianthus annus L. cv. Sanbro and cv. Aitana) seeded 12 months after treatment (MAT) were studied. Specifically, their effects on the shoot length, seed yield, and yield components, including plant length, head diameter (HD), and 1000-seed weight were investigated. Field studies were conducted over a period of two years at two locations in Ankara, Turkey. Sulfosulfuron and MM+IMS were applied post-emergence to winter wheat in 2008 at 0, 9.75, 19.5 and 39 g active ingredient (ai) ha-1 and 0, 4.5, 9 and 18 g total ai ha-1, respectively. Sunflower cultivars were sowed after winter wheat crop in 2009. Sunflower yield was found to be the most sensitive biological parameter to the herbicidal residue in the soil, while the 1000-seed weight was the least sensitive. Sunflower yield reduction caused by sulfosulfuron ranged from 71 to 100% and 27 to 81% in site 1 and site 2 depending on the application time, variety, and application rate, respectively. Sunflower yield at site 1 was reduced 15-76% for cv. Sanbro and 20-83% for cv. Aitana when MM+IMS treated early respectively, whereas, at site 2, the same treatment resulted in 22-36% yield reduction for cv. Sanbro and 28-43% for cv. Aitana. The yield reduction caused by the same MM+IMS rates were 49-85% for cv. Sanbro and 60-87% for cv. Aitana when MM+IMS treated late at site 1 and 49-84% for cv. Sanbro and 47-87% for cv. Aitana at site 2, respectively. Generally, the sunflower yields decreased as the dose of the chosen herbicide increased at both sites. The responses of sunflower cultivars to residues of sulfosulfuron were very similar, whereas slight differences were observed between sunflower cultivars with regard to the response to MM+IMS residue. Sulfosulfuron residues were more phytotoxic to the sunflower varieties than were MM+IMS at both sites. © Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi. Source

Akcay M.E.,Ataturk Central Horticultural Research Institute | Burak M.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy | Kazan K.,CSIRO | Yuksel C.,Ankara University | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2014

The pear (Pyrus communis L.) is a fruit species grown in many temperate regions of the world. Turkey harbours a rich and ancient pear germplasm adapted to diverse ecological regions of the country. The aim of this study was to genetically characterise locally grown Anatolian pear germplasm. We have analysed large numbers (228) of pear accessions originated from six eco-geographically diverse regions using 18 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and identified 308 SSR alleles. Genetic similarities among the accessions examined were generally below 80%. The highest heterozygosity rate was obtained for the SSR locus 'CH02D11' derived from apples and 'KA16' and 'NH0021a' derived from pears. No identical or synonymous genotypes were found, while five homonymous genotypes were identified. Factorial correspondence analysis could not clearly separate different pear accession groups studied, suggesting that Anatolian pear accessions were intermixed possibly due to gene flow and/or germplasm movements between different eco-geographical regions. However, most pear accessions were grouped according to their collection sites in structure analyses. The SSR data reported here for Anatolian pear accessions will be valuable for future germplasm management efforts as well as for comparative studies that investigate genetic relationships of pears from Anatolia and the surrounding regions. © 2014 Association of Applied Biologists. Source

Oz M.H.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy | Vurgun H.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy | Bakir M.,Ankara University | Buyuk I.,Ankara University | And 6 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars. © FUNPEC-RP. Source

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