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Aydin I.,Central Fisheries Research Institute | Sahin T.,Recep Tayyip Erdogan University | Polat H.,Central Fisheries Research Institute | Gunes E.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research
Turkish Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

The spawning period, total fecundity, egg size, and fertilization and hatching rates of wild and hatchery-reared flounder, Platichthys flesus luscus, are investigated in this report. Wild and hatchery-reared broodstock consisted of 18 females (452.8±193.2 g) and 17 females (138.9±47.4 g), respectively. The spawning period lasted 79 days, from 22 January to 10 April. Mean total fecundity was 285±157.9 × 10 3 per female for wild broodstock while it was 115.6±53.6 × 10 3 eggs for hatchery-reared broodstock. The fertilization and hatching rates were 38.2±17.0% and 62.3±24.1% for wild and 45.3±22.7% and 54.8±26.5% for hatchery-reared broodstock, respectively. The reproductive parameters of wild and hatchery-reared flounder in the Black Sea were similar. © TÜBİTAK.

Ozel Y.K.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Gedikli S.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Aytar P.,Eskiehir Osmangazi University | Unal A.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2010

Cyanide, a hazardous substance, is released into the environment as a result of natural processes of various industrial activities which is a toxic pollutant according to Environmental Protection Agency. In nature, some microorganisms are responsible for the degradation of cyanide, but there is only limited information about the degradation characteristics of Basidiomycetes for cyanide. The aim of the present study is to determine cyanide degradation characteristics in some Basidiomycetes strains including Polyporus arcularius (T 438), Schizophyllum commune (T 701), Clavariadelphus truncatus (T 192), Pleurotus eryngii (M 102), Ganoderma applanatum (M 105), Trametes versicolor (D 22), Cerrena unicolor (D 30), Schizophyllum commune (D 35) and Ganoderma lucidum (D 33). The cyanide degradation activities of P. arcularius S. commune and G. lucidum were found to be more than that of the other fungi examined. The parameters including incubation time, amount of biomass, initial cyanide concentration, temperature, pH and agitation rate were optimized for the selected three potential fungal strains. The maximum cyanide degradation was obtained after 48. h of incubation at 30°C by P. arcularius (T 438). The optimum pH and agitation rate were measured as 10.5 and 150 rev/min, respectively. The amount of biomass was found as 3.0. g for the maximum cyanide biodegradation with an initial cyanide concentration of 100. mg/L. In this study, agar was chosen entrapment agent for the immobilization of effective biomass. We suggested that P. arcularius (T 438) could be effective in the treatment of contaminated sites with cyanide due to capability of degrading cyanide. © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.

Yildirak K.,Hacettepe University | Kalayloglu Z.,Middle East Technical University | Mermer A.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research
Environmental and Ecological Statistics | Year: 2015

Drought is one of the biggest threats that affects agriculture. Based on recent climatic observations and future projections, drought continues to increase its harmful impact on agricultural productivity especially in the arid areas of Turkey. Wheat farming in these arid and semi-arid areas such as Central Anatolia depends heavily on precipitation, thus monitoring for drought is needed. The timing of precipitation is also as important as its quantity. This study makes use of a crop and location specific model developed by FAO to simulate water related variables such as evapotranspiration, water deficiency and water satisfaction index to estimate the crop yield function for rain-fed wheat production in the arid regions of Turkey. A spatio-temporal yield model is estimated by Bayesian method known as Markov Chain Monte Carlo. By standardizing the simulated variables over normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), impact of drought related variables on wheat yield is studied and two variables are found. Use of NDVI, as a numeraire, comes in handy in many ways. For actual evapotranspiration estimate, it strengthens separation between evaporation and transpiration and, for water deficiency, it better represents the drought properties of farms for the terrain chosen. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Tan A.S.,General Directorate of Agricultural Research
Helia | Year: 2010

Sunflower (Hellanthus annuus L.) is one of the important oilseed crops with a high oil percentage (45-50%) and oil quality. It can be grown in both the first and second crop production seasons in the Aegean Region with high yield capacity. According to the production data of 2008, sunflower was produced on 577,958 ha and 992,000 metric tons of sunflower seed were harvested in Turkey (Anonymous, 2010). Because of the gap in vegetable oil production in Turkey, sunflower is one of the alternative and leading oilseed crops for Increasing vegetable oil production. One possibility for increasing this production Is for sunflower to also be grown as the second crop in the Aegean Region. The mission of the Oilseed Research Project at the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) is to reduce the cost of sunflower production by improving well adapted and high yielding varieties. A number of different approaches are utilized to achieve this goal. Improved germplasm for hybrid development and breeding lines of oilseed and confectionary type of sunflower germplasm (A, B and Rf lines) and also improved populations have been developed by conventional breeding techniques. To improve sunflower varieties with desired characters, genetic investigations and germplasm development of sunflower with improved yield, oil quality, resistance to disease [Sunflower rust (Pucctnia heltanthl Schw.)), insect, Orobanche sp., and adverse conditions are under consideration. The research program is aiming to develop oilseed and confectionary type of sunflowers for both the first and second crop production seasons. Sunflower germplasm has been developed from sources such as cultlvars, populations created through breeding methods, or inter-specific crosses with wild germplasm and then tested for general and specific combining abilities, oil percentage, and resistance to prevalent disease and adverse conditions to construct improved varieties. For hybrid variety development, combining ability studies in oilseed and confectionary sunflower breeding program were undertaken with line x tester analysis. More than 2000 lines, candidate varieties, and commercial varieties were evaluated in preliminary and yield trials In the first and second crop produc-Hon seasons. Variety performance tests and yield trials Indicated that sunflower can be grown with satisfactory yield performance (approximately 500-550 kg da -1) in both the first and second crop production seasons In the Aegean Region of Turkey. Improvement of oilseed and confectionary types of sunflower parental germplasms (A, B and Rf lines) including hybrid and open pollinated varieties has been carried out. The oilseed type of the open-pollinated variety Ege-2001 was developed by the S 0:1 generation testing method (modified recurrent selection) and has been registered. Effects of plant population, planting time, fertilizing, irrigation, and honeybee pollination on seed yield, oil percentage and other plant characteristics and silage quality of sunflower (Hellanthus annuus L.) were determined. Sunflower rust (Pucclnla heltanthl Schw.) race identification was performed under field conditions.

Vegetable oils and fats are vital components of the human diet because they are an important source of energy. In 2008, according to the production data, sunflower was grown in Turkey on an area of 577,958 ha and 992,000 metric tons of the seed were harvested (Anonymous, 2010). Because of the gap in vegetable oil production in Turkey, sunflower is one of the alternatives and the leading oilseed crop that can be used to increase the vegetable oil production in the country. Growing sunflower as a crop in the Aegean Region is one of the possibilities to increase the production. The main objectives of this study were to identify oilseed hybrids and open-pollinated confectionary varieties that could be grown with satisfactory yield performance in the Aegean Region. The experiments including oilseed and confectionary types of cultivars were conducted separately during the first crop-growing seasons of 2008 and 2009 on the experiment field of the Aegean Agricultural Research Institute in Menemen, Izmir. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Oilseed hybrids and open-pollinated confectionary sunflower candidate varieties were used in the study as the material. An adaptation study was undertaken for the characters of seed yield, seed oil content (%), 1000-seed weight, plant height, head diameter, seed length, seed width, hull percentage (%), seed color (white, black, and intermediate), days to flowering, and days to physiological maturity. The results Indicated that statistically significant differences were found among the sunflower varieties for the characters In question. In the oilseed variety experiments, the highest seed yield (572 kg da -1) and the lowest seed yield (343 kg da -1) were obtained in 2009 from the varieties ETAE-Y-TM-2007-5 and Armada, respectively. In the confectionary variety experiments, the highest seed yield (563 kg da -1) and the lowest seed yield (202 kg da -1) were produced in 2009 by the varieties ETAE-D1-2-B2 and ETAE-Ç-P-1-2, respectively.

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