General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR

Damascus, United States

General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR

Damascus, United States
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PubMed | Damascus University, CIHEAM Instituto Agronomico Mediterraneo and General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Experimental & applied acarology | Year: 2016

A small-scale survey was conducted on 64 beehives located in four governorates of Syria in order to assess for the first time the presence of honeybee-infecting viruses and of Varroa destructor mites in the country. RT-PCR assays conducted on 192 honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) using virus-specific primers showed that Deformed wing virus (DWV) was present in 49 (25.5%) of the tested samples and Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) in 2 (1.04%), whereas Acute bee paralysis virus, Sacbrood virus, Black queen cell virus and Kashmir bee virus were absent. Nucleotide sequences of PCR amplicons obtained from DWV and CBPV genomes shared 95-97 and 100% identity with isolates reported in the GenBank, respectively. The phylogenetic tree grouped the Syrian DWV isolates in one cluster, distinct from all those of different origins reported in the database. Furthermore, 19 adult V. destructor females were genetically analyzed by amplifying and sequencing four fragments in cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), ATP synthase 6 (atp6), cox3 and cytochrome b (cytb) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes. Sequences of concatenated V. destructor mtDNA genes (2696 bp) from Syria were similar to the Korean (K) haplotype and were found recurrently in all governorates. In addition, two genetic lineages of haplotype K with slight variations (0.2-0.3%) were present only in Tartous and Al-Qunaitra governorates.

Salaheddin K.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Valluvaparidasan V.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Ladhalakshmi D.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Velazhahan R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Plant Protection Science | Year: 2010

The potential of antagonistic rhizobacteria in the management of bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam) was evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. In this study, 93 bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of cotton were screened for their efficacy in inhibiting the growth of Xam in vitro. Among them, 21 isolates were found to inhibit the in vitro growth of Xam. These isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis based on phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and using 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Among the 21 isolates, the isolates P. fluorescens Pf32 and P. fluorescens Pf93 and B. subtilis B49 exhibited the maximum inhibitory activity against Xam. Talc-based powder formulations of the effective antagonistic isolates of P. fluorescens (Pf32, Pf93) and B. subtilis (B49) were developed and evaluated individually and in combination for their efficacy in the management of bacterial blight of cotton under greenhouse and field conditions. The P. fluorescens isolates Pf32 and Pf93 and Bacillus subtilis isolate B49 survived well in the talc-based formulation for more than 90 days. The application of a mixture of Pf32, Pf93 and B49 to seed, soil and foliage significantly reduced the bacterial blight incidence and increased the plant height, number of branches and number of bolls under field conditions. The plots treated with a mixture of Pf32, Pf93 and B49 recorded the maximum yield of 1915 kg/ha and 1512 kg/ha in trial I and trial II compared to 1210 kg/ha and 987 kg/ha in the untreated control, respectively.

Shehab A.H.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Amr Z.S.,Jordan University of Science and Technology | Lindsell J.A.,The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Turkish Journal of Zoology | Year: 2011

Near Palmyra, in the Syrian Desert, 5 species of scorpions belonging to 2 families (Buthidae and Scorpionidae) were observed; Buthacus tadmorensis, Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, and Scorpio maurus palmatus. B. tadmorensis accounted for 80.6% of the total number of recovered or observed scorpions, while O. scrobiculosus was the least common (1.4%). Pitfall traps proved to be more efficient at sampling (304 individuals) than checking under stones (57 individuals). Pitfall trapping results showed that scorpion abundance differed significantly between the 3 survey areas, while their abundance showed no significant difference among the 3 areas when employing the under-stone method. Notes on predation of scorpions (interspecific and intraspecific) and predators of scorpions are also included. Seasonal abundance and emergence of scorpions is described briefly. Biometric data on collected scorpion species indicating their weight are given. Population structure of B. tadmorensis during the study period is analyzed. © TÜBİTAK.

Ahmed M.Z.,South China Agricultural University | Ahmed M.Z.,University of Pretoria | De Barro P.J.,CSIRO | Olleka A.,South China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Entomology | Year: 2012

The sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a cryptic species complex composed of at least 24 different morphologically indistinguishable species. The considerable differences in the pest status across the complex, and the ability of some to develop resistance to, insecticides make awareness of their identity critical in terms of developing effective control measures. Previously, phylogenetic reconstructions have been used to identify different B. tabaci, but this approach is no longer necessary because of the existence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one consensus sequences for each of the known species. We therefore use these consensus sequences to determine the identities of the members of the complex in Syria and Egypt and then used genetic networks to reveal the pattern of their genetic relatedness to other haplotypes in the species to which they were assigned. The results showed the presence of three species in Syria, AsiaII1, Middle East-Asia Minor1 (this equates to the global invader known commonly as the B biotype) and Mediterranean (this equates to the global invader known commonly as the Q biotype). Egypt was shown to have two cryptic species, Middle East-Asia Minor1 and Mediterranean. In Syria, Middle East-Asia Minor1 was found around Damascus only (south-west Syria), while Mediterranean was found throughout Aleppo (northern Syria) and Hama (north central Syria). AsiaII1 was found around Hims (south central Syria) and Damascus (south-western Syria). In Egypt, Mediterranean was found in Cairo and Ismailia (central Upper Egypt), while Middle East-Asia Minor1 was found in the remaining all parts of Upper Egypt, Suez, North Sinai, Port Said, Dakahila, Behera and Alexandria which cover the main agricultural zone of Egypt. Genetic relatedness of Syrian and Egyptian populations with each other and with rest of world is also discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag, GmbH.

Ismail M.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Albittar L.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a serious pest of apples worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the mortality rate of codling moth eggs, larvae and pupae in the field in commercial and neglected apple and walnut orchards over two years, and to investigate the biodiversity and intensity of parasitoids associated with codling moth in the orchards. Five patches of wax paper containing 1-day-old codling moth eggs were placed in a neglected orchard in order to evaluate parasitism rates. Corrugated cardboard bands were placed around the trunk of 15 trees during late spring and the beginning of summer through to fruiting season to capture and measure parasitism of codling moth larvae. 5285 larvae in total were collected during this study. Mortality rate (egg + larvae + pupae) varied between the commercial and neglected orchards, reaching a maximum of (42.89% and 66.67%) in neglected apple orchards and (61.03% and 74.76%) in the neglected walnut orchard in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Tichogrammatidae) was the only egg parasitoid recorded. Eight hymenopteran larval and pupal parasitoids belonging to several subfamilies were recorded: Cheloninae, Agathidinae, Cremastinae, Haltichellinae, Chalcidinae, Anomalinae, and Pteromalinae and one dipteran belonging to Tachininae. In conclusion, mortality factors, mainly by parasitoids, are contributing to a general reduction in codling moth larvae populations particularly in neglected orchards. The hymenopteran Ascogaster quadridentata and the dipteran Neoplectops pomonellae can contribute to biological control programmes against codling moth in the coastal region and other regions. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

Ziadat F.M.,University of Jordan | Sultan K.A.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems | Year: 2011

Land suitability analysis is very important to assess and propose the most suitable land-use options. The reliability of land suitability evaluation is controlled by choosing the most limiting land characteristics and their ratings for the proposed land utilization types (LUTs). This study aims at examining the possibility of using current land use and farmers' knowledge as a starting point to suggest and/or modify land evaluation criteria, and to improve the land suitability evaluation process. The potential suitability of land for five LUTs (open range, improved range, rainfed barley, drip-irrigated vegetables and drip-irrigated trees) was evaluated near Al-Mafraq in Jordan using the maximum limitation method. The results indicated variable agreement levels between potential land suitability and current land use for different LUTs. Sixteen farms were selected to represent different cases of disagreement between potential suitability and current land use and were visited to explore the farmers' improved management practices adopted to overcome land-use limitations. Using proposed criteria, only 1% of the study area was highly suitable for drip irrigation, whereas most of the area was moderately or marginally suitable for other uses. This represents the conventional land evaluation procedures, which, in most cases, overlook the farmers' knowledge and practices that are adopted in a particular area to overcome biophysical limitations. The ratings for different land characteristics were modified based on comparisons with current land use, and by referring to farmers' adopted management practices. Using modified criteria, the highly suitable area for drip-irrigated vegetables increased by 18% and the highly suitable area for drip-irrigated trees increased by 25%. The results emphasized that the consideration of the farmer's indigenous knowledge and current land use improve the land evaluation process, which leads to better utilization of limited land resources in fragile environments. Copyright © 2011 Cambridge University Press.

Alasaad N.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Alzubi H.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Kader A.A.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Data in Brief | Year: 2016

Food and feed samples were randomly collected from different sources, including local and imported materials from the Syrian local market. These included maize, barley, soybean, fresh food samples and raw material. GMO detection was conducted by PCR and nested PCR-based techniques using specific primers for the most used foreign DNA commonly used in genetic transformation procedures, i.e., 35S promoter, T-nos, epsps, cryIA(b) gene and nptII gene.The results revealed for the first time in Syria the presence of GM foods and feeds with glyphosate-resistant trait of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in the imported soybean samples with high frequency (5 out of the 6 imported soybean samples). While, tests showed negative results for the local samples. Also, tests revealed existence of GMOs in two imported maize samples detecting the presence of 35S promoter and nos terminator. Nested PCR results using two sets of primers confirmed our data.The methods applied in the brief data are based on DNA analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This technique is specific, practical, reproducible and sensitive enough to detect up to 0.1% GMO in food and/or feedstuffs. Furthermore, all of the techniques mentioned are economic and can be applied in Syria and other developing countries. For all these reasons, the DNA-based analysis methods were chosen and preferred over protein-based analysis. © 2016 The Authors.

Sultan K.A.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Ziadat F.M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Sustainable management of limited land and water resources is urgently needed to meet the increasing demand for food and to protect the environment. Land suitability analysis is a prerequisite in assessing and proposing sustainable land use alternatives for an area. Soil data are usually available at different levels of detail and stored in various forms, usually soil maps and/or soil observations. Soil data interpretation methods control the reliability of land suitability evaluation results. This has a serious effect on the reliability of the suitability maps, the subsequent land use decisions, and environmental modeling. This study examines the reliability of land suitability mapping using different methods of soil data interpretation - the average of land characteristics for field observations within soil map units (point-in-polygon) and spatial interpolation using field observations only (proximity to points). The degree of agreement between the two methods depends on the type of land utilization - rainfed barley (86%), open range (85%), improved range (75%), drip irrigated vegetables (69%), and drip irrigated trees (59%). This results from the difference in the limiting land characteristic that determines the suitability of each land utilization type and the pattern of spatial variation of each land characteristic in the field. Suitability maps for adaptable (indigenous) crops (such as barley and range crops), which require minimum farming inputs, are generally more accurate because they tolerate a wider range of variability. The interpolation method was more efficient in detecting the spatial distribution and extreme values of limiting land characteristics, resulting in more accurate suitability maps. Therefore, when detailed soil maps are not available, field observations could be used to derive suitability maps using an exact interpolation method.

Ali A.Y.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Journal of insect science (Online) | Year: 2014

The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

Ali A.Y.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Ahmad A.M.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Amar J.A.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Biocontrol Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Rates of parasitism by Hymenoptera varied between 11.45% and 14.9% in Ceratitis capitata pupae from field-infested loquat and guava orchards in Tartous, Syria. The predominant parasitoid was Aganaspis daci and this is the first record for Syria. Further studies are now required to evaluate their potential in biological control. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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