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Salaheddin K.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Valluvaparidasan V.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Ladhalakshmi D.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Velazhahan R.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Plant Protection Science

The potential of antagonistic rhizobacteria in the management of bacterial blight of cotton caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (Xam) was evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. In this study, 93 bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of cotton were screened for their efficacy in inhibiting the growth of Xam in vitro. Among them, 21 isolates were found to inhibit the in vitro growth of Xam. These isolates were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis based on phenotypic characteristics, biochemical properties and using 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Among the 21 isolates, the isolates P. fluorescens Pf32 and P. fluorescens Pf93 and B. subtilis B49 exhibited the maximum inhibitory activity against Xam. Talc-based powder formulations of the effective antagonistic isolates of P. fluorescens (Pf32, Pf93) and B. subtilis (B49) were developed and evaluated individually and in combination for their efficacy in the management of bacterial blight of cotton under greenhouse and field conditions. The P. fluorescens isolates Pf32 and Pf93 and Bacillus subtilis isolate B49 survived well in the talc-based formulation for more than 90 days. The application of a mixture of Pf32, Pf93 and B49 to seed, soil and foliage significantly reduced the bacterial blight incidence and increased the plant height, number of branches and number of bolls under field conditions. The plots treated with a mixture of Pf32, Pf93 and B49 recorded the maximum yield of 1915 kg/ha and 1512 kg/ha in trial I and trial II compared to 1210 kg/ha and 987 kg/ha in the untreated control, respectively. Source

Shehab A.H.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Amr Z.S.,Jordan University of Science and Technology | Lindsell J.A.,The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
Turkish Journal of Zoology

Near Palmyra, in the Syrian Desert, 5 species of scorpions belonging to 2 families (Buthidae and Scorpionidae) were observed; Buthacus tadmorensis, Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Orthochirus scrobiculosus, and Scorpio maurus palmatus. B. tadmorensis accounted for 80.6% of the total number of recovered or observed scorpions, while O. scrobiculosus was the least common (1.4%). Pitfall traps proved to be more efficient at sampling (304 individuals) than checking under stones (57 individuals). Pitfall trapping results showed that scorpion abundance differed significantly between the 3 survey areas, while their abundance showed no significant difference among the 3 areas when employing the under-stone method. Notes on predation of scorpions (interspecific and intraspecific) and predators of scorpions are also included. Seasonal abundance and emergence of scorpions is described briefly. Biometric data on collected scorpion species indicating their weight are given. Population structure of B. tadmorensis during the study period is analyzed. © TÜBİTAK. Source

Ali A.Y.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Journal of insect science (Online)

The weeping fig thrips Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmermann (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is newly recorded for the first time in the leaf galls of the weeping fig tree Ficus benjamina L. (Rosales: Moraceae) in the coastal area of Tartous, Syria. The thrips caused purplish red spots on the leaf surface of the host plant and the leaves curl. G. uzeili appears to be successfully adapted to this area. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America. Source

Ziadat F.M.,University of Jordan | Sultan K.A.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems

Land suitability analysis is very important to assess and propose the most suitable land-use options. The reliability of land suitability evaluation is controlled by choosing the most limiting land characteristics and their ratings for the proposed land utilization types (LUTs). This study aims at examining the possibility of using current land use and farmers' knowledge as a starting point to suggest and/or modify land evaluation criteria, and to improve the land suitability evaluation process. The potential suitability of land for five LUTs (open range, improved range, rainfed barley, drip-irrigated vegetables and drip-irrigated trees) was evaluated near Al-Mafraq in Jordan using the maximum limitation method. The results indicated variable agreement levels between potential land suitability and current land use for different LUTs. Sixteen farms were selected to represent different cases of disagreement between potential suitability and current land use and were visited to explore the farmers' improved management practices adopted to overcome land-use limitations. Using proposed criteria, only 1% of the study area was highly suitable for drip irrigation, whereas most of the area was moderately or marginally suitable for other uses. This represents the conventional land evaluation procedures, which, in most cases, overlook the farmers' knowledge and practices that are adopted in a particular area to overcome biophysical limitations. The ratings for different land characteristics were modified based on comparisons with current land use, and by referring to farmers' adopted management practices. Using modified criteria, the highly suitable area for drip-irrigated vegetables increased by 18% and the highly suitable area for drip-irrigated trees increased by 25%. The results emphasized that the consideration of the farmer's indigenous knowledge and current land use improve the land evaluation process, which leads to better utilization of limited land resources in fragile environments. Copyright © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source

Sultan K.A.,General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research GCSAR | Ziadat F.M.,International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology

Sustainable management of limited land and water resources is urgently needed to meet the increasing demand for food and to protect the environment. Land suitability analysis is a prerequisite in assessing and proposing sustainable land use alternatives for an area. Soil data are usually available at different levels of detail and stored in various forms, usually soil maps and/or soil observations. Soil data interpretation methods control the reliability of land suitability evaluation results. This has a serious effect on the reliability of the suitability maps, the subsequent land use decisions, and environmental modeling. This study examines the reliability of land suitability mapping using different methods of soil data interpretation - the average of land characteristics for field observations within soil map units (point-in-polygon) and spatial interpolation using field observations only (proximity to points). The degree of agreement between the two methods depends on the type of land utilization - rainfed barley (86%), open range (85%), improved range (75%), drip irrigated vegetables (69%), and drip irrigated trees (59%). This results from the difference in the limiting land characteristic that determines the suitability of each land utilization type and the pattern of spatial variation of each land characteristic in the field. Suitability maps for adaptable (indigenous) crops (such as barley and range crops), which require minimum farming inputs, are generally more accurate because they tolerate a wider range of variability. The interpolation method was more efficient in detecting the spatial distribution and extreme values of limiting land characteristics, resulting in more accurate suitability maps. Therefore, when detailed soil maps are not available, field observations could be used to derive suitability maps using an exact interpolation method. Source

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