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Gubandru M.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Margina D.,Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy | Tsitsimpikou C.,General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece | Goutzourelas N.,University of Thessaly | And 5 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia accounting for 60-80% of the reported cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of certain parameters of oxidative stress and markers of endothelial dysfunction in the blood of 21 AD patients under standard treatment compared with 10 controls, in an attempt to elucidate the contribution of AD to the total oxidative stress status of the patients. Results indicate that IL-6, TNF-α, ADMA and homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in AD patients. Protein carbonyls levels were higher in AD group, while glutathione reductase and total antioxidant capacity were lower, depicting decreased defense ability against reactive oxygen species. Besides, a higher level of advanced glycation end-products was observed in AD patients. Depending on the treatment received, a distinct inflammatory and oxidative stress profile was observed: in Rivastigmine-treated group, IL6 levels were 47% lower than the average value of the remaining AD patients; homocysteine and glutathione reductase were statistically unchanged in the Rivastigmine and Donepezil-Memantine, respectively Donepezil group. Although the study is based on a limited population, the results could constitute the basis for further studies regarding the effect of medication and diet on AD patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Amalia Fleming General Hospital, University of Crete, European Food Safety Authority, University General Hospital of Larissa and General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece
Type: | Journal: Recent patents on inflammation & allergy drug discovery | Year: 2016

The modern way of life involves high stress levels, poor eating habits, lack of exercise, obesity and other detrimental health factors. Nutritional supplements (NS) are complexes of nutrients with variant activity that may infer reversal to nutrient depletion. They tend to be popular amongst social categories associated with the healthy life style, such as the elite and amateur athletes, military people and the general population.An overview of the state of play with regards to nutritional supplements -natural and synthetic-, is important both from toxicological and commercial point of view.From a thorough literature review on nutritional supplements, several patents of application have been identified and herewith reviewed, that recommend natural vegetable extracts as food supplements for prophylaxis, therapy, protection of immune system, diabetes, oxidative stress, cancer, chronic inflammations and other health conditions. Besides, nutritional supplements of pharmacological validity and high popularity are discussed relative to their contents and group of use.Cases of adulteration or unintentional contamination of commercial products with abusing substances (doping substances, narcotics etc.) or toxic compounds (heavy metals, plant toxics) have shed light to the problem of causing recalls of some products by the FDA.From the safety/ quality point of view NS lack harmonisation and sovereign laws/ institutional controls on the market, while due to their wide commercialization may possibly lead to risks to public health.


PubMed | University of Crete, European Food Safety Authority, Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas and General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece
Type: | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part B, Surveillance | Year: 2016

Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most common industrial chemicals and known to exert endocrine disruption activity. The aim of this study was the quantification of BPA in food stuffs on the Greek market. The applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was validated for linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision and recovery. About 41.7% of the canned solid phase samples, 25.0% of the canned liquid phase samples and 43.8% of the soft drinks were positive. Mean BPA concentrations (range) were 33.44.4ng/g (4.900.64-66.08.6ng/g) in canned solid phase, 2.700.08ng/ml (1.900.06-3.500.11ng/ml) in canned liquid phase and 2.300.18ng/ml (0.400.03-10.20.8ng/ml) in soft drinks. The results of this study are comparable with those reported in the literature according to which higher concentrations of BPA were detected in the solid fraction of canned food compared to their liquid fraction.


Tsatsakis A.M.,University of Crete | Docea A.O.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova | Tsitsimpikou C.,General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

The general population experiences uncontrolled multi-chemicals exposure from many different sources at doses around or well below regulatory limits. Therefore, traditional chronic toxicity evaluations for a single chemical could possibly miss to identify adequately all the risks. For this an experimental methodology that has the ambition to provide at one strike multi-answers to multi-questions is hereby proposed: a long-term toxicity study of non-commercial chemical mixtures, consisting of common everyday life chemicals (pesticides, food additives, life-style products components) at low and realistic dose levels around the regulatory limits and with the simultaneous investigation of several key endpoints, like genotoxicity, endocrine disruption, target organ toxicity including the heart and systemic mechanistic pathways, like oxidative stress. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


PubMed | University of Crete, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova and General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

The general population experiences uncontrolled multi-chemicals exposure from many different sources at doses around or well below regulatory limits. Therefore, traditional chronic toxicity evaluations for a single chemical could possibly miss to identify adequately all the risks. For this an experimental methodology that has the ambition to provide at one strike multi-answers to multi-questions is hereby proposed: a long-term toxicity study of non-commercial chemical mixtures, consisting of common everyday life chemicals (pesticides, food additives, life-style products components) at low and realistic dose levels around the regulatory limits and with the simultaneous investigation of several key endpoints, like genotoxicity, endocrine disruption, target organ toxicity including the heart and systemic mechanistic pathways, like oxidative stress.


Tsitsimpikou C.,General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece | Chrisostomou N.,Technological Educational Institute of Athens | Papalexis P.,Technological Educational Institute of Athens | Tsarouhas K.,Amalia Fleming General Hospital of Athens | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2011

Although the use of nutritional supplements by professional athletes and the benefits thereof have been extensively studied, information on recreational athletes' use of supplements is limited. This study investigated the consumption of nutritional supplements, source of information and supply of supplements, and level of awareness with regard to the relevant legislation among individuals who undertake regular exercise in Athens, Greece. A closed-ended, anonymous questionnaire was answered by 329 subjects (180 men, 149 women), age 30.6 ± 12.1 yr, from 11 randomly selected gym centers. Preparations declared as anabolic agents by the users were submitted to a gas chromatographic analyzer coupled to a mass spectrometric detector. Consumption of nutritional supplements was reported by 41% of the study population, with proteins/amino acids and vitamins being the most popular. Age (r = .456, p = .035), sex (χ 2 = 14.1, df = 1, p < .001), level of education (χ 2 = 14.1, df = 3, p < .001), and profession (χ 2 = 11.4, df = 4, p = .022) were associated with the subjects' decision to consume nutritional supplements. Most (67.1%) purchased products from health food stores. Only 17.1% had consulted a physician or nutritionist, and one third were aware of the relevant legislation. Two preparations were detected containing synthetic anabolic steroids not stated on the label. In conclusion, use of nutritional supplements was common among recreational athletes in Athens, Greece. A low level of awareness and low involvement of health care professionals as sources of information and supply were observed. © 2011 Human Kinetics, Inc.


Tsitsimpikou C.,General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece | Tsitsimpikou C.,University of Crete | Kouretas D.,University of Thessaly | Tsarouhas K.,University of Crete | And 3 more authors.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring | Year: 2011

The biochemical actions and side effects of recombinant erythropoietins (rhEPOs), their analogs and mimetics, their misuse as doping agents, and the principal analytical strategies developed to identify them in athletes' biologic fluids are reviewed. Patients who experience a range of pathologies have benefited from the administration of rhEPOs to correct severe anemia. Currently, monitoring the biologic effect of rhEPO in patients under treatment is by measuring the hemoglobin concentration. However, it may be valuable to directly monitor the actual levels of the administered drug and determine a dose-dependent correlation with any clinical adverse effect observed. This may permit the adoption of a patient-specific administration regime. Currently, the method of detecting EPO approved for doping control is an isoelectric-focusing, double-blotting, chemiluminescence assay based on charge differences between isoforms of rhEPOs and endogenous EPO in urine. The advantages and limitations of this method are presented. A new approach using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a complementary tool to the established method is discussed. The application of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry for the direct detection of the rhEPO molecules may prove to be promising. Indirect evidence of rhEPO abuse by athletes is based on the analysis of blood parameters (hemoglobin hematocrit, reticulocytes, macrocytes, etc) and serum markers (concentration of EPO and serum transferrin receptors, etc). Enrichment of the screened parameters with gene or biochemical markers revealing altered erythropoiesis and adoption of longitudinal monitoring of athletes' hematologic and biochemical parameters could also be a complementary approach in the fight against doping. Copyright © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


PubMed | University of Porto, University of Crete, University of Thessaly and General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece
Type: | Journal: Life sciences | Year: 2016

The aimof this study is to clarify the effect of cypermethrin (CY) on the oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation status of animals exposed to it and the synergistic role of piperonyl butoxide (PB0).Markers of oxidative stress, such as total antioxidant activity (TAC), protein carbonyls, hemoglobin (Hb), reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (TBARS), along with the telomerase activity in PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) were analyzed.Oxidative stress markers showed statistically significant differences between groups in TAC (p b 0.001), GSH (p = 0.018) and CAT activity (p = 0.029), which depended on dose and combined effect of both compounds. Telomerase activity also showed a statistically significant difference between all groups (F = 43.48, df=6, 14, p b 0.001)with cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide and the co-exposed groups being significantly different fromthe control group (p b 0.05). Significance: The observed results for TBARS, GSH, Hb, TAC, Crbnls and CAT from our exposed groups showed altered levels compared to control groups that could be linked to doses and combined effects of each chemical substance (cypermethrin and piperonyl butoxide). Oxidative stress markers suggest that cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide and the co-exposed groups, induce oxidative stress as well as induction of telomerase activity.


PubMed | General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece, University of Thessaly and University of Crete
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomedical reports | Year: 2017

Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). Recently, a new method has been published and validated that makes the detection of 3-hydroxystanozolol glucuronide in urine possible in a concentration >50-fold less compared to the above-mentioned commonly used methods. It is common practice to administer breeding animals with steroid hormones in order to enhance their growth. Athletes who consume meat containing such hormone residues may be at risk of failing a sports drug test. A randomized study in the general population consuming meat should be conducted, monitoring the levels of 3-OH-stanozolol glucoronide in human urine, in order to determine the threshold levels of passive exposure, if any, and therefore guarantee that any adverse analytical findings reported in the urine of athlete at a pg level correspond to stanozolol abuse for enhancing performance.


PubMed | General Chemical State Laboratory of Greece, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, University Hospital of Larissa and University of Crete
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular medicine reports | Year: 2016

Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders(ID) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, and routinely determined parameters do not reveal the real metabolic status of specific subgroups, such as patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA). In this study, in order to evaluate state of the art markers for the assessment of cardiometabolic risk, abnormalities in lipoprotein levels in patients with a lowgrade inflammatory status [diabetes mellitus(DM) subgroup] and in patients with a high systemic inflammatory burden(RAsubgroup) was determined. The study group comprised patients with ID[DM (n=20) and RA(n=20)], with an agedmatched control group(n=17). Patient serum was used to determine routine biochemical parameters and to isolate lowdensity lipoprotein(LDL) and highdensity lipoprotein(HDL). The heparincitrate method was used for LDL precipitation and the phosphotungstic acidMgCl2 technique for the isolation of HDL. Further, Amplex Red and advanced oxidation protein product(AOPP) assays were applied to determine lipid peroxides and protein oxidation, respectively, while the levels of serum advanced glycation end products(AGEs) were also determined. Although the differences in the routinely determined lipidemic profile were notable between the DM and RA subgroups, markers of lipid peroxidation and of advanced protein oxidation/glycation did not differ significantly, indicating possible similar oxidative damage of serum lipoproteins. On the whole, as alterations in lipoprotein functionality can occur long before any changes in routinely measured biochemical parameters are observed, more sensitive markers for the assessment of cardiovascular risk are required. As AOPPs, AGEs, oxidized LDL(oxLDL) and especially oxidized HDL(oxHDL) are affected during the early stages of inflammatory disease, and due to their known link to coronary artery disease, it would be wise to include these markers in the routine cardiovascular evaluation of patients with chronic inflammatory disease, such as those with RA.

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